پنجشنبه 12 تیر1393
از مرگ نمی ترسم
من فقط نگرانم
که در شلوغی آن دنیا
مادربزرگ مهربانم را پیدا نکنم ... (با الهام از بزرگ علوی)
مادربزرگ مهربانم خداحافظ... هیچگاه از یادم نخواهی رفت... برایم مظهر عشق، صبر، آرامش، مهربانی، گذشت و زندگانی بودی...
پنجشنبه 1 خرداد1393
ارائه مقاله در کنگره ملی تفکر و پژوهش دینی
«مطالعه تطبیقی پیدایش زبانها و ضرورت ترجمه
از دیدگاه قرآن کریم و تورات»
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن
مقاله حاضر مطالعه ای تطبیقی از قرآن کریم و تورات در مورد خواستگاه پیدایش زبان، زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه است. با توجه به دیدگاه والتر بنیامین به کتاب آفرینش در عهد عتیق درباره آفرینش جهان و زبان، در این مقاله در ابتدا به خواستگاه الهی زبان و سپس پیدایش زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه در تورات پرداخته شده است. سپس آیات مبارک قرآن کریم در مورد آفرینش آسمانها و زمین، پیدایش زبان و آموزش آن به انسان (حضرت آدم)، و زبان به عنوان واسطه نزول وحی مطالعه شده است. دلایل وجود زبانهای گوناگون در اقوام و ملل مختلف، ارتباط و تعامل بین اقوام، و در نتیجه ضرورت وجود ترجمه از دیگر موضوعاتی است که در قرآن کریم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین ادله قرآن کریم درباره نزول قرآن کریم به زبان عربی و نه دیگر زبانها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است.
واژههاي كليدي: والتر بنیامین، نامگذاری، برج بابل، کثرتِ زبانها، ضرورتِ ترجمه
مکان و زمان: اردبیل مهر 1393
چهارشنبه 31 اردیبهشت1393
Analysis of Major Characters
Mr. Kapasi believes that his life is a failure and longs for something more. In his efforts to lift his existence out of the daily, monotonous grind it has become, Mr. Kapasi develops a far-fetched fantasy about the possibility of a deep friendship between himself and Mrs. Das. This fantasy reveals just how lonely Mr. Kapasi’s life and marriage have become. His arranged marriage is struggling because his wife cannot recover from her grief over the loss of their young son or forgive him for working for the doctor who failed to save their son’s life. His career is far less than what he dreamed it might be. He uses his knowledge of English in only the most peripheral way, in high contrast to the dreams of scholarly and diplomatic greatness he once had. In his isolation, he sees Mrs. Das as a potential kindred spirit because she also languishes in a loveless marriage. He imagines similarities between them that do not exist, yearning to find a friend in this American woman. Not surprisingly, the encounter ends in disappointment. When Mrs. Das does confide in him, he feels only disgust. The intimacy he thought he wanted revolts him when he learns more about Mrs. Das’s nature.
In both of Mr. Kapasi’s jobs, as a tour guide and an interpreter for a doctor, he acts as a cultural broker. As a tour guide, he shows mostly English-speaking Europeans and Americans the sights of India, and in his work as an interpreter, he helps the ailing from another region to communicate with their physician. Although neither occupation attains the aspirations of diplomacy he once had, Mrs. Das helps him view both as important vocations. However, Mr. Kapasi is ultimately unable to bridge the cultural gap between himself and Mrs. Das, whether it stems from strictly national differences or more personal ones. Mr. Kapasi’s brief transformation from ordinary tour guide to “romantic” interpreter ends poorly, with his return to the ordinary drudgery of his days.
Mrs. Mina Das
Mrs. Das’s fundamental failing is that she is profoundly selfish and self-absorbed. She does not see anyone else as they are but rather as a means to fulfilling her own needs and wishes. Her romanticized view of Mr. Kapasi’s day job leads her to confide in him, and she is oblivious to the fact that he would rather she did not. She persists in confiding even when it is clear that Mr. Kapasi has no advice to offer her. Mrs. Das is selfish, declining to share her food with her children, reluctantly taking her daughter to the bathroom, and refusing to paint her daughter’s fingernails. She openly derides her husband and mocks his enthusiasm for tourism, using the fact that they are no longer in love as an excuse for her bad behavior. Although Mrs. Das has been unfaithful, she feels the strain in her marriage only as her own pain. She fails to recognize the toll her affair takes on her husband and children. Rather than face the misery she has caused, Mrs. Das hides behind her sunglasses and disengages from her family. Likewise, when her attempt at confiding in Mr. Kapasi fails, she leaves the car rather than confront the guilt that Mr. Kapasi has suggested is the source of her pain.
Mrs. Das embodies stereotypically American flaws, including disrespect for other countries and cultures, poorly behaved children, and a self-involvement so extensive that she blames others for her feelings of guilt about her infidelity. She is messy, lazy, and a bad parent. She has no concern for the environment or her effect on it and drops her rice snacks all over the ground, riling the local wildlife. She represents what is often called the “ugly American,” a traveler who stands out in every situation because of her expansive sense of self-importance and entitlement.
The Difficulty of Communication
Communication breaks down repeatedly in “Interpreter of Maladies,” often with hurtful consequences. Mr. Kapasi, who is the interpreter of maladies, as Mrs. Das names him, has lost his ability to communicate with his wife, forcing him to drink his tea in silence at night and leading to a loveless marriage. He has also lost his ability to communicate in some of the languages he learned as a younger man, leaving him with only English, which he fears he does not speak as well as his children. Mr. and Mrs. Das do not communicate, not because of a language barrier but because Mrs. Das hides behind her sunglasses most of the time and Mr. Das has his nose buried in a guidebook. The children do not listen to their parents, nor do they listen to Mr. Kapasi about the monkeys. All these frustrated attempts at communicating with one another lead to hurt feelings. The Kapasis are trapped in a failing marriage. The Dases are openly hostile to each other. The Das children run rampant over their parents and everyone else. And Mr. Kapasi and Mrs. Das are unable to reach a level of friendship that they both may have sought, if only they could speak with one another openly. When Mrs. Das loses Mr. Kapasi’s address at the end of the story, it marks the termination of the possibility that they could reach out to each other and the definite end to all communication between them.
The Danger of Romanticism
Every time a character in “Interpreter of Maladies” fails to see the truth about another person, the results are in some way harmful. The main conflict of the story centers on two people who romanticize each other, although in different ways. Mr. Kapasi sees Mrs. Das as a lonely housewife who could be a perfect companion to him in his own loneliness. He misses or ignores cues that she may not be interested in him for his own sake because, at some level, he wants her to be this companion. He sees many details about her, such as her bare legs and Americanized shirt and bag, but he passes over others, such as the way she dismisses her children’s desires and her selfishness with her snack. Such unflattering details do not fit with his conception of her. Likewise, Mrs. Das wants Mr. Kapasi to become a confidante to her and solve her personal and marital difficulties. She views him as a father figure and helper and misses or ignores indications that he may not fit those roles. For example, she doesn’t notice that he is uncomfortable with her personal revelations and presses him for help even when he explicitly tells her that he cannot give it to her.
Besides romanticizing one another, the characters also romanticize their surroundings, resulting in insensitivity and danger. Mr. Das, for example, photographs the Indian peasant whose suffering he finds appropriate for a tourist’s shot. He sees only what he wants to see—an interesting picture from a foreign land—not the actual man who is starving by the roadside. Even when Bobby is surrounded by monkeys, in genuine distress, Mr. Das can do nothing but snap a picture, as though this scene is also somehow separate from reality. Throughout their trip, Mr. Das fails to engage with India in any substantial way, preferring to hide behind the efficient descriptions in his guidebook. His romanticized tourist’s view of India keeps him from connecting to the country that his parents call home.
Central themes of all of Lahiri’s work, “Interpreter of Maladies” included, are the difficulties that Indians have in relating to Americans and the ways in which Indian Americans are caught in the middle of two very different cultures. We learn quite a few details about where the Das family fits into this cultural divide. Mr. and Mrs. Das were both born and raised in America, although their retired parents have now moved to India to live. The Dases visit every few years, bringing the children with them. They are Indian but not of India, and their dress and manner are wholly American. Although Mr. Kapasi recognizes some common cultural heritage, the Dases are no more familiar with India than any other tourist. Mr. Das relies on a tourist guidebook to tell him about the country through which they are traveling, and Mrs. Das could not be more uninterested in her surroundings if she tried. Although India is their parents’ home, Mr. and Mrs. Das are foreigners. Mr. Das even seems to take pride in his status as a stranger, telling Mr. Kapasi about his American roots with an “air of sudden confidence.”
Though Mr. Kapasi and the Dases do share an Indian heritage, their marriages reveal the extent of how different their cultures really are. Mr. Kapasi believes that he can relate to Mrs. Das’s unhappy marriage because he himself is in an unhappy marriage. He seeks this common ground as a way to find friendship and connection. However, the connection fails because the marriages are so vastly different. Mr. Kapasi’s parents arranged his marriage, and he and Mrs. Kapasi have nothing in common. By contrast, Mrs. Das fell in love with Mr. Das at a young age, and although their union was encouraged by their parents, her marriage was not arranged. Furthermore, Mr. Kapasi is offended by the concept of infidelity in Mrs. Das’s marriage. This lack of understanding reflects a differing understanding of duty and family between the two cultures. The two marriages may both be unhappy, but the causes, remedies, mistakes, and results of that unhappiness have no overlap whatsoever. Mr. Kapasi’s fantasy of forging a friendship with Mrs. Das is shattered even before he sees his address slip away in the wind. The cultural divide between him and Mrs. Das is, from his view, simply too vast.
Each character in the story has a distorted way of seeing the others, as each views others through some artificial means. Mr. Das views the world through his camera. His camera is always around his neck, and he sees even harsh realities through its lens. For example, he takes pictures of the starving peasant, even though doing so blatantly ignores the peasant’s essential reality. Mrs. Das hides behind her sunglasses, seeing the others through their tint and blocking others’ view of her eyes. Additionally, her window does not roll down, so she cannot directly see the world outside the taxi cab. Mr. Kapasi watches Mrs. Das through the rearview mirror, which distorts his view of her and prevents him from looking at her directly. Each child is wearing a visor, which suggests that their vision will one day be as distorted as their parents’ is. Finally, Mr. Das and Ronny closely resemble each other, whereas Mr. Das and Bobby have little in common. Mr. Kapasi simply observes this fact but draws no inference from it, even though this simple fact hints at the deeper truth: that Mr. Das is not Bobby’s father. Because Mr. Kapasi sees the Das family as a unit, he never suspects this truth. His idea of family distorts the reality of the situation.
Mr. Das’s camera represents his inability to see the world clearly or engage with it. Because he views the world through his camera, Mr. Das misses the reality of the world around him, both in his marriage and in the scenes outside the cab. Mr. Das chooses to have Mr. Kapasi stop the cab so that he can take a photograph of a starving peasant, wanting the picture only as a souvenir of India and ignoring the man’s obvious need for help. His view of the man’s reality is distorted because he sees the man only through the camera lens. Mr. Das snaps pictures of monkeys and scenery, taking the camera from his eye only when he turns back to his guidebook. Rather than engage actively with the India that surrounds him, he instead turns to the safety of frozen images and bland descriptions of ancient sites. He has come to visit India, but what he will take away with him—pictures and snatches of guidebook phrases—he could have gotten from any shop at home in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
Mr. Das also uses the camera to construct a family life that does not actually exist. His children are insolent and his wife is distant, yet Mr. Das tries to pose them in pictures that suggest harmony and intimacy. When Mrs. Das refuses to leave the car when they visit the monastic dwellings, Mr. Das tries to change her mind because he wants to get a complete family portrait—something, he says, they can use for their Christmas card. This “happy family” that Mr. Das aspires to catch on film is pure fabrication, but Mr. Das does not seem to care. He would rather exist in an imaginary state of willful ignorance and arm’s-length engagement than face the disappointments and difficulties of his real life.
Mrs. Das’s Puffed Rice
Puffed rice represents Mrs. Das’s mistakes and careless actions. Physically, Mrs. Das is young and attractive, but she is spiritually empty. She does not love her children or husband and is caught in the boredom of her life as a housewife. Her depression and apathy distance her from her family, but she harbors a secret that could tear the entire family apart. She carelessly scatters the puffed rice along the trail at the monastic dwellings, never thinking about the danger her actions pose to others. Even when she realizes the danger to Bobby, as monkeys surround and terrify him, Mrs. Das does not take any responsibility for the situation, just as she refuses to acknowledge any guilt about her affair with Mr. Das’s friend. If Mrs. Das’s secret is ever revealed, Bobby will be the true victim of that carelessness as well. Conceived out of anger, boredom, and spite and then lied to about his real father, Bobby is surrounded by deceit. Mr. Kapasi feels the urge to tell Bobby the truth as he carries him away from the monkeys. He knows that the safety he is providing for the boy—scattering the monkeys and lifting Bobby away from danger—is insubstantial. He delivers Bobby back to Mrs. Das, whose distance and carelessness fail to provide true safety.
جمعه 26 اردیبهشت1393
If it can be dreamed, it can be done
دوشنبه 22 اردیبهشت1393
Martin Amis’s Time’s Arrow as a Historigraphic Metafiction
Seyyed Shahabeddin Sadati
رمان پیکان زمان اثر مارتین امیس به عنوان یک فراداستان تاریخنگارانه
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
هدف از این سمینار یک روزه، آشنایی دانشجویان با
ادبیات مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم است
زمان: چهارشنبه مورخ 24 اردیبهشت 1393 ساعت 10 صبح
مکان: دانشکده زبانهای خارجی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن
یکشنبه 14 اردیبهشت1393
Literature and Literary Study
One of the principal targets of Allen’s satire in “The Kugelmass Episode” is literature and its study. Kugelmass is a humanities professor at the City College of New York in Brooklyn, but, it turns out, he “failed Freshman English.” (Allen himself attended CCNY and failed English at New York University.) He doesn’t speak like an educated man at all, but uses colloquialisms and a very New York Jewish speech pattern; the only time he deviates from this is to call his wife a “troglodyte” (a cave dweller) and to whisper sweet nothings into Emma Bovary’s ear. Kugelmass is dissatisfied with his life, and he yearns not for love but for a cheap idealization or glamorization of it that is the stuff of romance novels. He decides he wants to have an affair with Emma Bovary because she is French—“that sounds to me perfect,” he says. But what he doesn’t even consider is that Flaubert’s novel is not about perfect love at all but the ridiculous idealization of it by the title character—which leads to her utter ruin. In fact Kugelmass is very much like Flaubert’s Emma: dissatisfied and disillusioned by marriage, searching not for love but for shallow fulfillment that is mistaken for something much grander. But Kugelmass is also like Emma’s husband, Charles, who is a bumbling, aging man who is really no good at his job. However, Kugelmass the literature professor does not realize these things at all.
Allen throws in a number of references in his story to classics of literature that reinforce the absurdity of Kugelmass’s quest and resound with his general predicament. The Great Persky asks Kugelmass what his pleasure is in terms of female heroines to have an affair with. He suggests the social-climbing title character of Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and the mad Ophelia in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, for example. At the end of the novel, Kugelmass asks to be projected into Philip Roth’s Portnoy’s Complaint, a book about a Jewish man who talks to his analyst about his sexual troubles. Throughout the story, Allen uses lowbrow humor to poke fun at serious, high art by combining it with absurd and farcical situations. The fact that a person can be projected at all into a work of fiction is ridiculously comic, and that it is Flaubert’s serious naturalistic novel is even more incongruous.
Literary study is also satirized in the story as students and professors all over the country begin to wonder about what is happening as a “bald Jew” enters Flaubert’s novel. Rather than thinking that something crazy is happening, the teachers think that their students are on pot or acid. A Stanford professor, unable to simply see the text for what it is, remarks that it shows that the mark of a classic is that “you can reread it a thousand times and always find something new.”
Pursuit and Possession
Perhaps Allen’s most serious target of satire in “The Kugelmass Episode” is modern humans’ pursuit of satisfaction. Kugelmass is dissatisfied and undergoing a midlife crisis, but rather than seek meaning, he looks for romance and glamour to relieve the boredom in his life. When things go wrong and Emma can’t get back to the Flaubert novel, he tells Persky that all he is prepared for at this point in his life is “a cautious affair.” He is prepared to lie and cheat on his wife but he doesn’t want to work too hard or to give up the other things in his life—his job, his comfortable existence—to get what he wants. The irony at the end of the story is that Kugelmass, who has been in the pursuit of things that he thinks he must have, is himself pursued by “having,” as the “large, hairy” irregular verb “tener” chases him over a rocky landscape. Emma is also in pursuit of shallow and meaningless things—idealized romance and fame—that she thinks can make her happy.
Art and Life/Fantasy and Reality
A recurring theme in Allen’s fiction and films is the line between art and life, between fantasy and reality. Fantasy in the story is seen on two levels. On the one hand, there are straightforward fantasies, for example Kugelmass’s wish have a beautiful woman by his side and Emma Bovary’s desire for an acting career and fame. But Allen plays on that idea and Kugelmass’s fantasy becomes, literally, a fantastic journey into another dimension.
In the story, Kugelmass is bored and seeks a release from his dull, humdrum existence. He wants to escape from the reality of his oaf-like wife Daphne and have an affair. He doesn’t want an ordinary dalliance, a “chippie” on the side as his wife says, but excitement, softness, glamour; he wants to “exchange coy glances over red wine and candlelight.” He turns to Persky to help him, and even though it should be apparent that things will probably not work out (the unsuccessful magician lives in a run-down apartment building and uses a cheap-looking Chinese cabinet as his transporter), he willingly suspends his disbelief and hopes for the best. As a sign of his desperation to escape his reality, Kugelmass the distrusting city man accepts that Persky knows what he is doing. His fantasy comes to life when he is thrust into the world of Flaubert’s novel and begins his affair with Emma Bovary, but Kugelmass soon finds that living with one’s fantasy poses many hazards. Once again, Kugelmass wants to escape—this time his fantasy-turned-reality—either by committing suicide or running away to Europe. He is relieved when Emma is finally transported back to Yonville. Art in the story is an escape from real life, with its fat and dull people and mundane situations. But even though it is a tempting escape, it is still an illusion, and illusions by definition are not all they seem to be.
New York Jewish Culture
“The Kugelmass Episode” is very much a story about a New York Jew, and Allen presents a number of details to emphasize the Jewishness of his principal characters. Kugelmass teaches at City College of New York The word “Kugel” in the title character’s name refers to a sweet noodle dish that is served at Passover. In fact all the “real” characters in the story are Jewish—Kugelmass, Daphne, Dr. Mandel, Persky, and even Kugelmass’s jealous colleague, Fivish Kopkind. Allen’s characters have stereotypical Jewish traits, from Kugelmass’s anxiety and concern about money to Persky’s pessimism. The story uses elements of Jewish humor, with the main character cast as a schlemiel, or bungler, the use of exaggeration for comic effect (Kugelmass notes, for example, that Emma’s hotel tab reads “like the defense budget”) and its concerns with the anxieties of urban life. But while Allen satirizes Jewish culture, speech, and manners, he never does so harshly, and his characters are crazy but ultimately likeable, and the colloquial speech they use in the face of such serious situations is perhaps the most humorous element in the story.
The Entertainment Industry
“The Kugelmass Episode” pokes fun at the entertainment industry, especially in its satirical portraits of Persky the Great and Emma Bovary. Persky is an unsuccessful entertainer who nonetheless continues at his trade and hustles to earn a living. He built his cabinet for a booking for the Knights of Pythias that “fell through,” he tells Kugelmass, and he aims to make money from Kugelmass from his contraption. Emma, when she comes to New York, becomes a parody of an actress with aspirations to fame. She wants to dine at Elaine’s, a landmark restaurant in New York that serves Italian-Jewish comfort food and which is the haunt of many celebrities (she wants to see and be seen). She thinks anyone can act and wants to be coached by the great Strasberg so she can win an Oscar. Both these characters show the shallowest side of the entertainment industry that focuses not on art but on money and fame.
دوشنبه 1 اردیبهشت1393
The boys in “The Destructors” are in their teen, which is the age at which childish innocence is gradually left behind in favor of worldliness and sophistication. For the boys in the story, however, their innocence is already gone, replaced by cynicism, selfishness, and rebelliousness. When Mr. Thomas arrives home early, T. is surprised because the old man had told him he would be gone longer. Greene writes, “He protested with the fury of the child he had never been.” Not only have these boys grown up during the war years, they live in an environment that serves as a constant reminder of that harrowing experience. They meet in a parking lot near an area that was destroyed by bombs during the war, and they are seemingly unaffected by it because it is such a normal part of their life. In reality, the war years have claimed their youthful innocence, leaving them disillusioned and determined to create their own world order, but all they really know is destruction. Part of innocence is surrender to the imagination. In “The Destructors,” however, imagination takes an ugly turn. T. uses his imagination to devise the plan to destroy Mr. Thomas’s house. Greene writes that the boys “worked with the seriousness of creators – and destruction after all is a form of creation. A kind of imagination had seen this house as it had now become.” The imagination used to plot the demise of the house is the opposite of the imagination used to create it. In innocence, a person’s imagination is applied to think of a better world, but the boys have lost their innocence. They can only imagine a worse world.
“The Destructors” is a study of shifting power. Blackie initially holds the power of leadership in the gang, and he is a basically good leader. Although he encourages mischief, it is the kind that does not hurt anyone. In his hands, power is the ability to lead others. When T. takes over leadership, however, the gang changes dramatically. He gets the members to participate in a cruel plan to destroy an innocent man’s home, a home that is a treasured piece of England’s past. In T.’s hands, power is the ability to destroy. His brand of leadership is different; when Blackie arrives on the first morning of the destruction (the day after T. assumes leadership), “He had at once the impression of organization, very different from the old happy-go-lucky ways under his leadership.” When Summers arrives on the second morning, voicing his preference to do something more fun that day, T. will not hear of it. T. knows he is more powerful than Summers is, so he reminds him that the job is not done and that Summers himself voted in favor of the project. He succeeds in pressuring the boy to stay and help finish the destruction. In the changing social structure of this small community, the balance of power is shifting. The boys forcibly take power in the community, and it is executable power. They have the ability to make changes in people’s lives and to intimidate others. Mr. Thomas, on the other hand, thinks he has power that he no longer possesses. He believes that he has authority based on the social order of the past, in which he, as an elder in the community, would be respected and obeyed. The shift in power seen in “The Destructors” signals the changing social order and does not bode well for the future.
Greene demonstrates the instability of postwar England in his presentation of opposing forces throughout “The Destructors.” The tension created by these forces reflects a society that has survived trauma but is deeply changed by it. Social dynamics are undergoing change, and the youth no longer feel connected to the past, as previous generations did. Greene’s writing often incorporates paradoxes, and in this story, paradoxes are used to communicate the atmosphere of the community in which the Wormsley Common gang functions. Greene’s use of paradox in the story is evident in T.’s attitudes toward Mr. Thomas. On the one hand, he sets about destroying his house, treating him disrespectfully, and regarding him with suspicion. At the same time, however, T. does not hate him. His intention to destroy Mr. Thomas’s life is not personal but is rooted in his desire to get rid of the last vestige of traditional beauty in the war-torn landscape. Although his destructive behavior is not personal, the consequences are deeply personal for the old man, but T. is unable to consider such consequences. A related paradox in the story is when T. takes Mr. Thomas’s seventy one-pound notes, but not for personal gain. Instead, he takes them only to burn them. In other words, T. takes items that are inherently valuable, but he has no interest in making use of that value. T.’s attitude toward Mr. Thomas’s house is paradoxical, too. He knows the house is beautiful, but his feelings about beauty, especially as they relate to social classes (the house is an emblem of the upper class) makes it easy for him to destroy it anyway. Another example of paradox is in the truck driver who ultimately brings the house to its final destruction. While the reader expects this man to react with feelings of guilt or horror, he laughs. He has no part in planning the destruction, nor does he have any feelings toward the old man or what he represents; yet, his reaction is not what is expected. He lacks sympathy or compassion and bursts into uncontrolled laughter, saying, “You got to admit it’s funny.”
Beneath the surface of “The Destructors” are allegorical elements that enable Greene to comment about postwar England. The various characters in the story represent the older generation and the traditions of the past and the younger generation and its rejection of the empty promises and values of the past. Mr. Thomas stands for the old ways and the past belief in the authority of elders. He initially expects to be able to tell the boys what to do and what not to do simply because he is older than they are. In the determination to destroy Mr. Thomas’s house, the work of a respected English architect, Greene demonstrates that the longstanding class struggle, as represented by property, is intensified. The lower class, represented by the gang, is not satisfied to watch the upper class enjoy valuable property; instead, they succeed in destroying it and somehow achieve a closer balance between the haves and the have-nots. The story is also an allegory about power. T. joins the group and soon takes the power away from Blackie. Once he has secured the power in the group, he immediately initiates changes by raising the stakes of what kind of mischief they will seek. T. becomes a sort of dictator in the group, giving orders and making unilateral decisions. In the wake of World War II, these are disturbing images of a new generation of power-hungry young people emerging from the wartime experience. Readers may interpret this as a message about the price of war or as a warning of what may come if something is not done to reverse current trends.
“The Destructors” works as both parable and allegory, parable in the sense that it is a narrative in a relatively contemporaneous setting that makes a clear moral point, allegorical in the sense that it ‘signifies’ on several levels. Critics often comment on the story within the historical context of the postwar era in England. Miller observes that the story reflects conditions in England in the postwar years when the gradual recovery ushered in unexpected shifts in social and political dynamics. Many communities (like the one in the story) lay in ruins. Anarchism is central to ‘The Destructors,’ for the story’s thesis. On the other hand, Jesse F. McCartney of Southern Humanities Review sees the gang as symbolizing democratic socialism struggling against privilege and conservative politics. Other critics are quick to note that the story resonates with today’s audience because what is disturbing in the story continues to be part of daily life.
sources: www.bookrags.com & www.studymode.com
سه شنبه 26 فروردین1393
Dubliners contains fifteen portraits of life in the Irish capital. Joyce envisioned his collection as a looking glass with which the Irish could observe and study themselves. In most of the stories, Joyce uses a detached but highly perceptive narrative voice that displays these lives to the reader in precise detail. Rather than present intricate dramas with complex plots, these stories sketch daily situations in which not much seems to happen. Though these events may not appear profound, the characters’ intensely personal and often tragic revelations certainly are. The stories in Dubliners peer into the homes, hearts, and minds of people whose lives connect and intermingle through the shared space and spirit of Dublin.
The Prison of Routine
Restrictive routines and the repetitive, mundane details of everyday life mark the lives of Joyce’s Dubliners and trap them in circles of frustration, restraint, and violence. Routine affects characters who face difficult predicaments, but it also affects characters who have little open conflict in their lives. The most consistent consequences of following mundane routines are loneliness and unrequited love. Eveline, in the story that shares her name, gives up her chance at love by choosing her familiar life over an unknown adventure, even though her familiar routines are tinged with sadness and abuse. The circularity of these Dubliners’ lives effectively traps them, preventing them from being receptive to new experiences and happiness.
The Desire for Escape
The characters in Dubliners may be citizens of the Irish capital, but many of them long for escape and adventure in other countries. Such longings, however, are never actually realized by the stories’ protagonists. Eveline’s hopes for a new life in Argentina dissolve on the docks of the city’s river. Eveline seeks release from domestic duties through marriage. The impulse to escape from unhappy situation defines Joyce’s Dubliners, as does the inability to actually undertake the process.
The Intersection of Life and Death
The Story’s emphasis is on the meeting point between life and death. In “Eveline”, memories of the dead haunt the living and color every action. The dead cast a shadow on the present, drawing attention to the mistakes and failures that people make generation after generation. Such overlap underscores Joyce’s interest in life cycles and their repetition. The monotony of Dublin life leads Dubliners to live in a suspended state between life and death, in which each person has a pulse but is incapable of profound, life-sustaining action.
In most of the stories in Dubliners, a character has a desire, faces obstacles to it, then ultimately relents and suddenly stops all action. These moments of paralysis show the characters’ inability to change their lives and reverse the routines that hamper their wishes. Such immobility fixes the Dubliners in cycles of experience. Eveline freezes like an animal, fearing the possible new experience of life away from home. These moments evoke the theme of death in life as they show characters in a state of inaction and numbness.
Characters in Dubliners experience both great and small revelations in their everyday lives, moments that Joyce himself referred to as “epiphanies,” a word with connotations of religious revelation. These epiphanies do not bring new experiences and the possibility of reform, as one might expect such moments to. Rather, these epiphanies allow characters to better understand their particular circumstances, usually rife with sadness and routine, which they then return to with resignation and frustration. Sometimes epiphanies occur only on the narrative level, serving as signposts to the reader that a story’s character has missed a moment of self-reflection. “Eveline,” concludes with epiphany that the character fully registers, yet the epiphany is tinged with frustration, sadness, and regret. The epiphany highlights the repeated routine of hope and passive acceptance.
Windows in Dubliners consistently evoke the anticipation of events or encounters that are about to happen. Eveline turns to windows when she reflects on her own situation, of which center on the relationship between the individual and the individual’s place in a larger context.
Joyce’s Dublin is perpetually dark. No streams of sunlight or cheery landscapes illuminate these stories. Instead, a spectrum of grey and black underscores their somber tone. Characters walk through Dublin at dusk, an in-between time that hovers between the activity of day and the stillness of night, and live their most profound moments in the darkness of late hours. These dark backdrops evoke the half-life or in-between state the characters in Dubliners occupy, both physically and emotionally, suggesting the intermingling of life and death that marks every story. In this state, life can exist and proceed, but the darkness renders Dubliners’ experiences dire and doomed.
Eveline’s story illustrates the pitfalls of holding onto the past when facing the future. Hers is the first portrait of a female in Dubliners, and it reflects the conflicting pull many women in early twentieth-century Dublin felt between a domestic life rooted in the past and the possibility of a new married life abroad. One moment, Eveline feels happy to leave her hard life, yet at the next moment she worries about fulfilling promises to her dead mother. She grasps the letters she’s written to her father and brother, revealing her inability to let go of those family relationships, despite her father’s cruelty and her brother’s absence. She clings to the older and more pleasant memories and imagines what other people want her to do or will do for her. She sees Frank as a rescuer, saving her from her domestic situation. Eveline suspends herself between the call of home and the past and the call of new experiences and the future, unable to make a decision.
The threat of repeating her mother’s life spurs Eveline’s epiphany that she must leave with Frank and embark on a new phase in her life, but this realization is short-lived. She hears a street organ, and when she remembers the street organ that played on the night before her mother’s death, Eveline resolves not to repeat her mother’s life of “commonplace sacrifices closing in final craziness,” but she does exactly that. Like the young boys of “An Encounter” and “Araby,” she desires escape, but her reliance on routine and repetition overrides such impulses. On the docks with Frank, away from the familiarity of home, Eveline seeks guidance in the routine habit of prayer. Her action is the first sign that she in fact hasn’t made a decision, but instead remains fixed in a circle of indecision. She will keep her lips moving in the safe practice of repetitive prayer rather than join her love on a new and different path. Though Eveline fears that Frank will drown her in their new life, her reliance on everyday rituals is what causes Eveline to freeze and not follow Frank onto the ship.
Eveline’s paralysis within an orbit of repetition leaves her a “helpless animal,” stripped of human will and emotion. The story does not suggest that Eveline placidly returns home and continues her life, but shows her transformation into an automaton that lacks expression. Eveline, the story suggests, will hover in mindless repetition, on her own, in Dublin. On the docks with Frank, the possibility of living a fully realized life left her.
شنبه 2 فروردین1393
Long Live the Spirit of
October 7, 1934 - January 9, 2014
Amiri Baraka's Biography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiri_Baraka
جمعه 1 فروردین1393
«روایتهای خودشیفته: تعریف فراداستان و تکنیکهای آن»
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
در نشریه الکترونیک مرور
لینک مشاهده مطلب:
سه شنبه 20 اسفند1392
Otto Griebel’s “The International”
Realism in the arts may be generally defined as the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. The term originated in the 19th century, and was used to describe the work of Gustave Courbet and a group of painters who rejected idealization, focusing instead on everyday life - Wikipedia
Realism vs. Romanticism
Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Instead it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Realist works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life, and often reflected the changes wrought by the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions - Wikipedia
Truthful representation in art (e.g. literature & painting), of contemporary life and manners
Scientific method: Objectivity & observation in representation
Middle class art
The personality of the author was to be suppressed, or was at least to reduce into the background, since reality was to be seen “as it is” - Dr. Manuchehr Haghighi, Literary Schools
دوشنبه 19 اسفند1392
تحلیل شعر «عروسک نازی ها» اثر یوسف کومانیاکا: شعر معاصر آمریکا
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن
ترجمه شعر «عروسک نازی ها»
دانشجو کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی
در نشریه اینترنتی مرور
لینک مشاهده مطلب:
سه شنبه 13 اسفند1392
Chekhov developed a technique of ending stories with what have been termed “zero endings”—or anti-climactic conclusions. This technique makes the stories seem more realistic, and often more pathetic, because readers are left to guess what will happen next. However, Chekhov also employs “surprise endings” to confound our expectations, and we can never be sure how a tale will end. Consequently, over a hundred years after his works were written, readers still marvel at Chekhov’s freshness and originality.
Although Chekhov sketches his characters with compassionate good-humor, he never abstains from highlighting their faults, foibles, and human weaknesses. Chekhov’s stories are thus deeply humane works of fiction: in detailing life’s poignant trivialities, they are unrivalled in their sense of authenticity.
Like many of his characters, Chekhov’s own life was touched by tragedy. Rayfield declares that his “daring modern morality is in part born of bitter experience.”
Disillusionment and Failed Ideals: Chekhov’s stories examine many kinds of disappointment and failed ideals. Often the protagonists are disillusioned by events that force them to reevaluate their personal philosophies and understanding of the world and this disillusionment usually occurs toward the end of stories. ... We see that Chekhov’s tales conclude with either a moment of revelation or anti-climax (these endings have been termed “zero” and “surprise” endings, respectively.) His protagonists are either crushed by their sense of disillusionment with the world, or they hold out hope in a better future.
The Breakdown of Aristocratic Society: Many of Chekhov’s stories examine the effect of change on a prevailing social or familial hierarchy. In most of his stories, Chekhov deals with the breakdown of an old social order with characteristic moral ambivalence.
Communication and Non-Communication: Communication and its interruptions bear much importance throughout Chekhov’s stories. In particular, the author focuses on the extent of communication between people of different social classes and the diverse views these people hold on social inequality. Some characters take positive steps to discuss this issue—such as Ivan in “Gooseberries”, who wants to open channels of communication between the landowners and the peasants.
The Natural World: Chekhov is clearly intrigued by his characters’ relationship to the land and how this varies—or does not vary—according to social standing. Peasants work to earn their daily bread, while some members of the upper class drive around in grand chaises admiring the view. Nature consistently inspires either fear, wonder, or discomfort in Chekhov’s protagonists. Often, Chekhov’s impressionistic evocation of the landscape overshadows his plot altogether.
The Dark/Cloudy Sky: a force for despair.
Gooseberries: Nikolai’s desire of wealth and social status.
“Gooseberries” was written towards the end of Chekhov’s life and was first published as the middle story of The Little Trilogy in 1898. We see that the author examines two of his favorite themes within this tale: social injustice and the quest for fulfillment. Ostensibly, this story deals with the hypocrisy of landowners who ignore the suffering of those less fortunate than themselves. But Chekhov also raises a subtler issue than class divides, as we see when Ivan asserts the hollowness of personal achievement. Ivan believes that successful people are blind to reality because they believe they are insulated from misfortune. Ivan thus despairs at his own happiness as he recognizes that “life will show him her claws sooner or later.” By this stroke, which comes like a sting in the tail of his text, Chekhov jolts his readers out of complacent objectivity. We are forced to question whether life is something to be sailed through without the expectation of encountering problems or setbacks, or whether it provides us with an opportunity to grasp “something greater and more rational” than happiness. Chekhov takes his opportunity to answer Tolstoy’s philosophical query, “How much land does a man need?”, when Ivan asserts that man requires only the freedom to roam the globe, where he can “have room to display all the qualities and peculiarities of his free spirit.”
Looking at Ivan’s grand theorizing, we see that Chekhov raises more questions than he answers. In “Gooseberries”, we are encouraged to use our own intellect and imagination to understand what motivates the characters and, additionally, to guess at the meaning behind events. But this only makes the episodes and characters depicted seem more realistic—in “real life” we also have to hypothesize about what drives people’s actions. The means by which Chekhov dramatizes his narrative—the devices he uses to evoke atmosphere and create characters that feel genuine—also create an impression of a place filled with real people, living real lives. The author does not force the petty frustrations of human existence into the background of his text. In fact, he highlights such foibles in order to flesh out the personalities of his characters. For instance, we read that the “oppressive smell” of “stale tobacco” emanating from Ivan’s pipe prevents Burkin from falling asleep. Similarly, we are shown how the water around Aliokhin turns brown because he has not washed in a long time. Very little escapes Chekhov’s attention or fails to capture his interest; the smallest detail is used to vindicate the humanity as well as the frailty of his characters. However, although Chekhov’s work is rich in important (yet seemingly inconsequential) detail, he does not force us to appreciate these wonderful touches. As the critic Maurice Baring noted in Landmarks of Russian Literature, Chekhov “never underlines his effects, he never nudges the reader’s elbow.” It is left to us to pick up on the minutiae and appreciate the finer subtleties of his text.
سه شنبه 13 اسفند1392
تحلیل شعر «جان وِین عزیز» اثر لوئیز اردریک: شعر معاصر آمریکا
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن
ترجمه شعر «جان وین عزیز»
کارشناس مترجمی زبان انگلیسی
در سایت ادبی مرور
لینک مشاهده مطلب:
سه شنبه 6 اسفند1392
انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان
تحلیل فیلم باشو غریبه کوچک از دیدگاه نظریه مهاجرت هومی بابا و رابین کوهن
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
در نشریه الکترونیک مرور (ادبیات ایران)
لینک مشاهده مقاله:
یکشنبه 4 اسفند1392
خدمت به مردم تنها یک وظیفه نیست
بلکه کاری است شادی افزا
در معبد زرتشتیان در کرمان بهمن 92 این جمله را دیدم که به نظرم بسیار عمیق و زیبا آمد.
چهارشنبه 30 بهمن1392
ارائه مقاله در دهمین هم اندیشی حلقه نشانه شناسی تهران - نشانه شناسی اخلاق تحت عنوان:
خیانت در معنا و یا کفاره اخلاقی: مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان
سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن
دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات فرانسه دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران
این مقاله تلاش دارد تا با توجه به نظریات لیندا هاچن و پتریشیا وا در خصوص فراداستان، و تعاریف اخلاق و کارکرد آن به مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان (بر اساس رمان تاوان نوشته یان مک ایوان به عنوان یک فراداستان) از دیدگاه اخلاقی بپردازد. در تعریف اخلاق باید گفت که اخلاق از وجدانیات فاصله گرفته و با رفتن به سوی فراخود و آفرینش شاهکار، تولید معنایی جدید میکند که مخاطب را همواره شگفت زده میکند. فراداستان داستانی است که درباره داستان نویسی باشد. به عبارت دیگر دغدغه اصلی آن نوشتارِ داستان است. نوشتار مهمترین نشانه در بررسی فیلم تاوان است، زیرا عناصر فیلم همانند تیتراژ، موسیقی، حرکت دوربین (به ویژه بر روی واژگان نوشته شده)، و معنای کلی فیلم در ارتباط با این نشانه است که تعبیر میشوند. در کنار نوشتار، عمل غیر اخلاقی (دروغ گویی) و عذاب وجدان به عنوان دیگر مسائل مهم در این فیلم خودنمایی میکنند. عمل غیراخلاقی در حق خواهر و پسر باغبانشان تا جایی ذهن یکی از شخصیتهای اصلی داستان (برایانی به عنوان کنشگر) را به خود مشغول داشته که برای جبران اخلاقی، دست به نوشتن یک رمان میزند. در فیلم تاوان نوشتار به عنوان نشانه مرکزی کارکرد اخلاقی پیدا کرده است و تبدیل به یک کفاره دینی – مسیحی برای جبران گناهِ مرتکب شده میشود. به بیانی روشنتر، نوشتار در یک رابطه تعاملی با سوژهها قرار گرفته، از نشانه فراتر رفته و با اضافه شدن یک معنا به آن تبدیل به یک ارزش اخلاقی شده است. به عبارتی دیگر، برایانی در کنشی با استفاده از زبان، جبران نوشتاری را به جای کفاره اخلاقی قرار میدهد و بدین ترتیب گفتمان جدید تولید میکند. در آخر، با استفاده از روشهایی همچون مربع نشانه شناختی گریماس و طرحواره تنشی فونتانی تلاش شده نوشتار به عنوان یک کفاره اخلاقی در ارتباط با عناصری همچون سن و سال، وضعیت روحی – روانی، رفتارهای اخلاقی و غیراخلاقی برایانی همانند نفرت و عذاب وجدان از لحاظ نشانه – معنا شناختی اعضای مکتب نشانه شناختی پاریس مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.
کلیدواژگان: تاوان نوشتاری، فراداستان، کفاره اخلاقی، مک ایوان
محل برگزاری همایش: تهران دارآباد دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی
زمان: 14 اسفند 1392
لینک دریافت برنامه هم اندیشی:
سه شنبه 29 بهمن1392
The often tragic circumstances of Poe’s life haunt his writings. His father disappeared not long after the child’s birth, and, at the age of three, Poe watched his mother die of tuberculosis. There are echoes of Poe’s upbringing in his works, as sick mothers and guilty fathers appear in many of his tales.
He introduced the British horror story, or the Gothic genre, to American literature, along with the detective story, science fiction, and literary criticism. Gothic literature, a genre that rose with Romanticism in Britain in the late eighteenth century, explores the dark side of human experience—death, alienation, nightmares, ghosts, and haunted landscapes. Poe brought the Gothic to America. American Gothic literature dramatizes a culture plagued by poverty and slavery through characters afflicted with various forms of insanity and melancholy. Poe’s Gothic tales are brief flashes of chaos that flare up within lonely narrators living at the fringes of society.
Major Theme: Love and Hate
Poe explores the similarity of love and hate in many stories. Poe portrays the psychological complexity of these two supposedly opposite emotions, emphasizing the ways they enigmatically blend into each other. The Gothic terror is the result of the narrator’s simultaneous love for himself and hatred of his rival. The double shows that love and hate are inseparable and suggests that they may simply be two forms of the most intense form of human emotion.
Poe introduces villain protagonists such as Montresor of "The Cask of Amontillado" who hate their enemies but whose hate becomes even more sinister and implacable because they mask it with signs of affection. Montresor's false solicitousness for Fortunato's health is ultimately revealed as a ploy to lure Fortunato to his death. In all of these cases, love and hate are shown to be closely connected, as one can easily turn into the other without warning.
Motif: The Masquerade
At masquerades Poe’s characters abandon social conventions and leave themselves vulnerable to crime. In “The Cask of Amontillado,” for example, Montresor uses the carnival’s masquerade to fool Fortunato into his own demise. The masquerade carries the traditional meanings of joy and social liberation. Reality is suspended, and people can temporarily assume another identity. Montresor exploits these sentiments to do Fortunato real harm.
In “The Cask of Amontillado,” Poe uses Fortunato’s name symbolically, as an ironic device. Though his name means “the fortunate one” in Italian, Fortunato meets an unfortunate fate as the victim of Montresor’s revenge. Fortunato adds to the irony of his name by wearing the costume of a court jester. While Fortunato plays in jest, Montresor sets out to fool him, with murderous results.
“The Cask of Amontillado” takes subjective interpretation—the fact that different people interpret the same things differently—to its horrific endpoint.
The repeated allusions to the bones of Montresor’s family that line the vaults foreshadow the story’s descent into the underworld. The two men’s underground travels are a metaphor for their trip to hell. Because the carnival, in the land of the living, does not occur as Montresor wants it to, he takes the carnival below ground, to the realm of the dead and the satanic.
The shield features a human foot crushing a tenacious serpent. In this image, the foot represents Montresor and the serpent represents Fortunato. Although Fortunato has hurt Montresor with biting insults, Montresor will ultimately crush him. The conversation about Masons also foreshadows Fortunato’s demise. Fortunato challenges Montresor’s claim that he is a member of the Masonic order, and Montresor replies insidiously with a visual pun. When he declares that he is a “mason” by showing his trowel, he means that he is a literal stonemason—that is, that he constructs things out of stones and mortar, namely Fortunato’s grave.
source: sparknotes.ocm and gradesaver.com
پنجشنبه 3 بهمن1392
وقتی میمیرید نمیفهمید که مرده اید؛
فقط تحملش برای دیگران سخت است
بیشعور بودن هم مشابه همین وضعیت است...!
چهارشنبه 2 بهمن1392
با همه چیز در آمیز
و با هیچ چیز آمیخته مشو
در انزوا پاک ماندن
نه سخت است
و نه با ارزش
مدتها بود دنبال چنین حرفی می گشتم تا به برخی از دوستان خود بگویم. چنین معنایی را به آنها می گفتم اما نه به زیبایی این کلمات
دوشنبه 16 دی1392
انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان:
Rebelling against the Dominant White Culture: Foucauldian Study of the Concept of Power in Imamu Amiri Baraka's Dutchman
در ژورنال بین المللی International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research
مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
لینک دریافت مقاله:
سه شنبه 10 دی1392
برای کسی که میفهمه، هیچ توضیحی لازم نیست
برای کسی که نمیفهمه، هر توضیحی اضافه است
دوشنبه 9 دی1392
Chess is something more than a game. It is an intellectual diversion which has certain artistic qualities and many scientific elements
دوشنبه 25 آذر1392
ارائه مقاله در همایش ملی افق های پدیدار در آموزش زبان دانشگاه آزاد اهر 28 و 29 آذر 1392
How to Teach “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an Academic Literary Course in EFL Classes
نویسنده مقاله: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
توضیح: «چگونگی تدریس درس نمونه های شعر ساده انگلیسی در دانشگاه»
چکیده مقاله در زیر آمده، مقاله کامل را پس از برگزاری همایش نیز در اینجا قرار می دهم
The present study attempts to analyze the function and importance of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an academic literary course in classes of teaching English as Second or Foreign Language. Firstly, this study considers different views about using literature in EFL / ESL classes. It reviews briefly the history of using literature in different methods of teaching English as second / foreign language. Then, the definition of poetry, its importance in EFL / ESL classes, and the difficulties of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are brought. How to select and develop poetic texts in EFL / ESL classes are other important matters which have been scrutinized in this study. Techniques, strategies, activities, and tips of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are the other major issues which have been studied and explained in this study.
Keywords: EFL / ESL; English Poetry; Teaching Poetry; Samples of Simple Poetry
یکشنبه 24 آذر1392
Time: unknown Saturday evening
Place: North Dublin
Climax: when the boy in the bazaar decides not to buy a present for Mangan’s sister
Suspense & Dilemma: ---
Conflicts: emotional, mental, and internal
Nameless boy: flat, dynamic - protagonist
Mangan’s sister: flat, static
Uncle: flat, static
Aunt: flat, static
Point of view: first person
Irony: irony of situation - in the bazaar at the end of the story
Windows: the space separating the interior life from the exterior life, the threshold between domestic space and the outside world and through them the characters in Dubliners observe their own lives as well as the lives of others
Dusk and Nighttime: the half-life state the characters in Dubliners occupy, both physically and emotionally, suggesting the intermingling of life and death that marks every story. The darkness renders Dubliners’ experiences fearful and doomed
The Prison of Routine
Restrictive routines and the repetitive, mundane details of everyday life mark the lives of all people in the world, and trap them in circles of frustration, restraint, and violence
The Desire for Escape from unhappy life
Paralysis & Death
In most of the stories in Dubliners, a character has a desire, faces obstacles to it, then ultimately relents and suddenly stops all action. These moments of paralysis show the characters’ inability to change their lives and reverse the routines that hamper their wishes. Such immobility fixes the Dubliners in cycles of experience. The young boy in “Araby” halts in the middle of the dark bazaar, knowing that he will never escape the tedious delays of Dublin and attain love. These moments evoke the theme of death in life as they show characters in a state of inaction and numbness
Characters in Dubliners experience both great and small revelations in their everyday lives, moments that Joyce himself referred to as “epiphanies,” a word with connotations of religious revelation. These epiphanies do not bring new experiences and the possibility of reform, as one might expect such moments to. Rather, these epiphanies allow characters to better understand their particular circumstances, usually full of sadness and routine, which they then return to with resignation and frustration. Sometimes epiphanies occur only on the narrative level. “Araby concludes with epiphany that the character fully registers, yet this epiphany is tinged with frustration, sadness, and regret. The epiphany highlights the repeated routine of hope and passive acceptance that marks each of these portraits, as well as the general human condition
In “Araby,” the allure of new love and distant places mingles with the familiarity of everyday drudgery, with frustrating consequences. Mangan’s sister embodies this mingling, since she is part of the familiar surroundings of the narrator’s street as well as the exotic promise of the bazaar. She is a “brown figure” who both reflects the brown façades of the buildings that line the street and evokes the skin color of romanticized images of Arabia that flood the narrator’s head. Like the bazaar that offers experiences that differ from everyday Dublin, Mangan’s sister intoxicates the narrator with new feelings of joy and elation. His love for her, however, must compete with the dullness of schoolwork, his uncle’s lateness, and the Dublin trains. Though he promises Mangan’s sister that he will go to Araby and purchase a gift for her, these mundane realities undermine his plans and ultimately thwart his desires. The narrator arrives at the bazaar only to encounter flowered teacups and English accents, not the freedom of the enchanting East. As the bazaar closes down, he realizes that Mangan’s sister will fail his expectations as well, and that his desire for her is actually only a vain wish for change
The narrator’s change of heart concludes the story on a moment of epiphany, but not a positive one. Instead of reaffirming his love or realizing that he does not need gifts to express his feelings for Mangan’s sister, the narrator simply gives up. He seems to interpret his arrival at the bazaar as it fades into darkness as a sign that his relationship with Mangan’s sister will also remain just a wishful idea and that his infatuation was as misguided as his fantasies about the bazaar. What might have been a story of happy, youthful love becomes a tragic story of defeat. The narrator’s failure at the bazaar suggests that fulfillment and contentedness remain foreign to Dubliners, even in the most unusual events of the city like an annual bazaar
The tedious events that delay the narrator’s trip indicate that no room exists for love in the daily lives of Dubliners, and the absence of love renders the characters in the story almost anonymous. Though the narrator might imagine himself to be carrying thoughts of Mangan’s sister through his day as a priest would carry a Eucharistic chalice to an altar, the minutes tick away through school, dinner, and his uncle’s boring poetic recitation. Time does not adhere to the narrator’s visions of his relationship. The story presents this frustration as universal: the narrator is nameless, the girl is always “Mangan’s sister” as though she is any girl next door, and the story closes with the narrator imagining himself as a creature. In “Araby,” Joyce suggests that all people experience frustrated desire for love and new experiences
Some parts are taken from sparknotes.com
پنجشنبه 21 آذر1392
انتشار ترجمه درسنامه زبانشناسی عمومی سوسور در نشریه الکترونیک آدم برفی ها
مترجم: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
لینک دریافت مطلب:
سه شنبه 12 آذر1392
Conflicts: mental: Daru vs. Balducci, emotional: Daru vs. Arab
Climax: when the Arab chooses the way to the imprisonment
Time: during Algerian War (1954)
Daru: round, dynamic
Balducci: flat, static
The Arab: flat, static
Point of view: third person limited
Schoolhouse on the hill: is the symbol of solitude
Snow: is the symbol of despair and death
Verbal Irony: L’Hote: the guest or the host
Irony of Situation: at the end of the story when the Arab chooses the way to the imprisonment
The unpredictability of the consequences of human choices in unfriendly conditions
Freedom: the freedom to choose one’s action gives meaning to human life. Freedom is inherently connected with the human right to choose a course of action. Freedom gives life meaning, and through independent action one finds value in life
Solitude: the physical isolation and the failure to act lead to moral solitude. Daru’s failure to act with regard to the Arab’s fate has left him disconnected from himself
The Limits of Human Knowledge: Everyone in “The Guest” has limited knowledge of the happenings of the story. Balducci doesn’t know why the Arab killed his cousin, or why Daru must take the Arab to the police; he simply has his orders and follows them. Daru doesn’t know whether the Arab should be released or punished. Meanwhile, the Arab displays confusion when Daru asks him difficult questions and when Daru explains his choice to either escape to the south or turn himself into the police
The Absurdity of human life: Camus envisions the universe as silent and indifferent (his portrayal of the cruel plateau region fits this vision very neatly). Despite this indifference, human beings must survive. They continue to build meaning and pursue certainty, even though such aims are impossible. This combination of a godless, uncaring world and human striving leads to a condition that Camus dubs “the absurd.” He writes, “The absurd is born of this confrontation between the human need and the unreasonable silence of the world.” Although it might sound pretty depressing to live in an inescapable state of “the absurd,” Camus feels that this is the only way we can exist. One must continue striving, choosing and pursuing freedom, even though the universe does not care whether we live or die. Daru’s ability to find comfort and within the harsh plateau climate bodes well for his ability to sustain life in absurd conditions; however, his failure to respond to the moral dilemma represented by the Arab ultimately crushes him. In the face of ambiguity and uncertainty, one must act with an absurd confidence. One must choose anyway. Daru fails to do so, and thus falls into despair
Existentialism: the main subject/concern is human’s existence
Free will: we create our own reality
Authenticity: to find the right way
Responsibility: existence precedes essence
the notes about the themes are taken from www.gradesaver.com
یکشنبه 26 آبان1392
انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان
The influence of ideological state apparatuses in identity formation: Althusserian reading of Amiri Baraka’s “In Memory of Radio”
در ژورنال بین المللی AcademicJournals
مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
لینک دریافت مقاله
یکشنبه 26 آبان1392
The Angel: round, static
Pelayo: flat, static
Elisenda: flat, static
The Child: flat, static
Neighbor Woman: flat, static
Father Gonzaga: flat, static
The Spider-Girl: flat, static
Protagonist: the old man/angel
Antagonist: the other characters
Conflicts: mental, emotional, physical
Time: odd, allegorical: “On the third day of rain,” “The world had been sad since Tuesday,”
Place: unknown village
Point of View: third-person limited
Suspense and Dilemma: ---
Symbols: the old man/angel: supernatural, the spider-girl: corrupted morality
Ending: indeterminate or open ending
The Folly of Human Reception of the Supernatural
The two major supernatural occurrences in the story are the old man with wings and the girl who has been turned into a spider. The people in the story treat the old man as an oddity, but not as a supernatural oddity: more a freak of nature than something beyond nature. The old man appears to be nothing more than a frail human with wings, and so his status as an angel is endlessly debated. Perhaps it is the people who lack dignity, not the old man
The Spider-Girl is a clear contrast with the Old Man. Whereas he is difficult—if not impossible—to interpret, the Spider-Girl delights the people with the clarity of her story. She disobeyed her parents as so was turned into a spider by god. Unlike the Angel, the people do not debate her status as a spider. This tendency of the public to accept supernatural explanations for such simple morality tales but to deny them in the case of complexity and frailty (as exemplified by the old man) may be satirical
The Similarity of Natural and Supernatural
These comments serve to blur the distinction between the natural and supernatural. Garcia Maquez may be suggesting that such a distinction is unnecessary, or that the people are simply blind to it. Whether it is a failure to impose the boundary or ignore it is a matter of interpretation—and the story, ultimately, invites interpretation more than it invites meaning
What is the definition of true Human
Just as the Old Man is described in terms of his animal characteristics, so too he is described as human. They see the Old Man’s humanity yet don’t feel the need to respond humanely. In contrast there is the Spider-Girl. The narrator notes that the spider girl is a much more appealing attraction because her story is full of human truth. Because her story is simply and straightforwardly moral, she is appealing, whereas the old man—full of mystery and complexity—is unappealing. Garcia Marquez invites us to consider that the truly human qualities in life are the Old Man’s—uncertainty, mystery, strangeness, open-endedness—whereas the trite moralizing of the Spider-Girl is actually far from human experience. It merely consoles the people, whereas the Old Man—by revealing our cruelty—shows them their true nature
Humans Must Interpret Events
The story illustrates the human need to interpret life’s events. The Old Man, an exaggerated dramatization of any strange event, is interpreted in many different ways. Individual characters try to attach meaning to the Old Man, or to reduce his meaning, in terms of their own lives. Thus Garcia Marquez stages the inevitable situatedness of human experience. We see things through our own eyes, and the search for a universally applicable meaning is inevitably doomed
Magical Realism and A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings
“A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings” is perhaps the clearest and most famous example of a genre that Garcia Marquez helped to create: magical realism. This style, simply put, combines elements of ordinary life with elements of fantasy and magic. One might say that a work of magical realism treats the magical as ordinary, and thus invites us to consider the ordinary as magical. Despite containing similarities to folk legends and fairy tales, stories adhering to “magic realism” avoid the naive moral judgments found in those folk genres. Instead, magical realism creates a complex and problematic world free of moral lessons or any maxims
Irony of Situation: at the end of the story
the notes about the themes are taken from www.gradesaver.com