جمعه ۴ اردیبهشت۱۳۹۴

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - The Preface to Shakespeare

Samuel Johnson

The Preface to Shakespeare


Johnson's analysis of Shakespeare reveals his ideals for literature in general.

Mimesis: The most notable sign of Shakespeare's greatness is in the category of mimesis, or imitation. The greatest art is that which imitates life best.  According the Johnson, Shakespeare's characters are like real people. His greatness in this area outweighs the negatives that could be said about him. Shakespeare's plays endure because human nature remains the same.

The Neoclassical Era was fond of rules.  When it came to drama, they looked back to ancient Greece for their rules, specifically to Aristotle's Poetics.  From that they got the idea that a drama should conform to the Aristotelian unities.

The Aristotelian unities are unity of time, place, and action.

  1. Time. The action portrayed should be able to take place during the time it takes on the stage. The only modern series that tries to follow this closely is 24.
  2. Place. The action of the play should take place in one area, not jump around to a lot of locations. 
  3. Action. The play should have one primary plot with one major action, without major sub-plots.

Greek plays were shorter than Shakespeare's plays and were produced in trilogies; the trilogies could get around these limitations. Each of Shakespeare's plays is more like one of the trilogies than like an individual Greek play. Shakespeare's plays broke all these rules (as did Gary's skit). Johnson sees the problem as a problem with the rules, not a problem with Shakespeare. Johnson did see some problems with Shakespeare's plays, which reveal as much about Johnson as they do about Shakespeare.

Vulgarity: Shakespeare's plays display a degree of vulgarity that Johnson finds offensive.

Morality: Johnson dislikes the immorality of some the Shakespeare's characters and plays. For Johnson, plays should encourage virtue, which in his own writing he does at the expense of mimesis.

Source: http://www2.latech.edu

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جمعه ۲۸ فروردین۱۳۹۴

ارائه مقاله در همایش بین المللی چالش های آموزش زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی

ارائه مقاله در همایش بین المللی چالش های آموزش زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی

تحت عنوان:

Teaching English Drama in EFL/ESL Classes

by Dr. Seyyed Shahabeddin Sadati


Abstract: The present study attempts to analyze the function and importance of teaching “English Drama” as an academic literary course in classes of teaching English as Second or Foreign Language. Drama can be used in EFL / ESL classes to motivate active learning in any subject-to give students a kinesthetic and empathetic understanding as well as an intellectual understanding of a topic. Teaching drama is also a paradigm for active learning and the reflective teaching of literature, because teaching is itself a dramatic art and it takes place in dramatic setting. Like many teachers and literary critics, the researcher believes that the best way to teach drama is performing the plays in the classroom. Students who participate in Dramatic activities are less likely to have difficulty in speaking in public and they will be more persuasive in their communications, both written and oral. This study considers different views about using literature in EFL / ESL classes. It reviews briefly the history of using literature in different methods of teaching English as second / foreign language. Then, the definition of drama and the difficulties of teaching “English Drama” will be presented. How to select and develop Dramatic texts in EFL / ESL classes are the other important matters which will be scrutinized in this research. Techniques, strategies, activities, and tips of teaching “English Drama” are the other major issues which will be studied and explained in this study.

Key Words: English Drama, Teaching English Drama, EFL Classes.


زمان: سی ام و سی و یکم اردیبهشت ماه 1394

مکان: دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی اهر

تارنمای همایش: http://www.celt-el.ir/en


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سه شنبه ۲۵ فروردین۱۳۹۴

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - The Pilgrim's Progress

The Pilgrim’s Progress

John Bunyan



Knowledge Gained Through Travel

The Pilgrim’s Progress demonstrates that knowledge is gained through travel by portraying Christian and his companions learning from their mistakes on their journey. Pilgrimage depends on travel, and so a pilgrim must be a voyager prepared to go far and wide. Yet in Bunyan’s book, voyage in itself does not make a traveler a pilgrim. The pilgrim must advance spiritually as he or she advances geographically. The key factor is knowledge, which must increase as the pilgrim proceeds forward. Christian never makes the same mistake twice or meets the same foe twice, because he learns from his experiences. Once he experiences the Slough of Despond, he never needs to be despondent again. Other pilgrims who lack understanding may advance fairly far, like Heedless and Too-bold, who almost get to the Celestial City; however, they do not understand what they undergo, and so they only babble nonsense and talk in their sleep. They are travelers but are not pilgrims because they cannot verbalize or spiritually grasp what they have been through.


The Importance of Reading

The importance of reading is emphasized throughout The Pilgrim’s Progress because the pilgrims reach salvation and happiness by understanding the Bible. The pilgrims who have not read and do not understand the Bible are viewed as disappointments, who will not gain entry to the Celestial City. For example, when Christian dismisses the good lad Ignorant, he does so only because Ignorant cannot grasp divine revelation as conveyed by the Bible. In effect, he rejects Ignorant because he cannot read. Another example is in the first stage of the book when the narrator falls asleep and first glimpses Christian, who is crying and holding a book. The book is the Bible and it strikes pain into the heart of the believer who has strayed from its message. Though pilgrims may read the Bible, they also must believe its message and apply it to their everyday lives. Reading is necessary even for death. When Christiana receives her summons to the Master and takes leave of the world, the summons is sent in the form of a letter. If she could not read it, she would never meet her maker. Reading is not merely a skill in life but the key to attaining salvation.


The Value of Community

The value of community is portrayed in Part II through Christiana’s journey to the Celestial City with her children and a few other companions. As a result, Christiana experiences pilgrimage itself as a communal activity. Every time she makes a stop and picks up more pilgrims to accompany her, the group grows substantially. Her strengths as a pilgrim involve reaching out to others, as when caring for her children, receiving weak or disabled pilgrims into her group, and marrying off her sons. In contrast, Part I portrays pilgrimage as a solitary activity. Though Christian finds companions in Faithful and Hopeful, he never seems to need them. He could progress just as well without them. In fact, when Christian experiences his original spiritual crisis and decides to leave his home and city, he does so alone, as if solitude were necessary to feel the divine word. Yet when Christian cries after the four mistresses of the Palace Beautiful ask why he left his family, he displays a hidden longing for his family. Bunyan emphasizes here that spirituality is best when it is communal. Christian does not end up in solitary bliss wandering alone in heaven but in the Celestial City filled with happy throngs of residents. His community is a large group of similar-minded people. Yet Christiana instinctively knows what Christian learns in the end: spiritual existence should involve togetherness.


Source: www.sparknotes.com

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چهارشنبه ۵ فروردین۱۳۹۴

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - Leviathan

Thomas Hobbes

Leviathan Summary

Hobbes' Leviathan is divided into four parts: 1) of man, 2) of commonwealth, 3) of a Christian commonwealth, and 4) of the Kingdom of Darkness. His overall project is to explain by what reasons a commonwealth may govern men, and then to establish the best possible way for this government to function in order to accommodate the desires of its denizens.

Part One begins naturally with man, for Hobbes believes that the commonwealth is nothing but an "artificial man." Beginning his argument at the most basic level, he argues that man exists in the external world as a reactive creature that senses objects and is driven to act by the constant motions of the world. These constant motions lead to man's constant and insatiable desires and wants, which in a state of nature pits everyone against another in a perpetual state of war. Here men are equal in that anyone can kill anyone else, and as such men live in a constant state of fear an anxiety. Since man's main goal in life is to protect his own life through his rational capacities he reasons that the best way to do this is to establish a state with a power great enough to protect all who consent to live under it. Thus, a state or commonwealth is established with the sole purpose of protecting the lives of those who live within it.

Part Two is devoted to explaining the citizen's obligations to this state, or 'Leviathan', and its proper form and functions. According to Hobbes, the best form of government is a monarchy, since in any other form of government the sovereign power is not strong enough to protect the subjects from outside invaders and from themselves. A subject's duty to the sovereign is total, and acting otherwise is only hurting oneself, since the commonwealth is established for the self-preservation of its subjects. Of course one has the option of leaving the commonwealth if one finds it too oppressive, but to leave the commonwealth is to re-enter the state of war that characterizes pre-social man. This is the worst possible outcome, since here there is no right or wrong, no justice or injustice, and man is constantly defending himself.

Part Three answers the question: is obedience to a sovereign authority consistent with obedience to a divine authority? Hobbes reasons that there is no conflict between obeying civil and divine laws, but that men are often led to in such a conflict through the false claim that God is present in the world as it exists. According to Hobbes, the Kingdom of God exists wholly outside the natural world, despite the frequent claims that a group has special access to the divine. Because God is totally supernatural, then, and because no person can claim to have communication with or to be a representative of God, members of the commonwealth cannot possibly subscribe to a religious authority. The only power that exists for man, Hobbes claims, is sovereign power. There is no religious power manifest on earth that is greater. In careful interpretation of scripture, Hobbes claims that there is no eternal soul that is punished or rewarded eternally in hell or heaven, and that there are no incorporeal spirits interacting with this world. In fact, he concludes, all that is necessary for proper worship of God is to obey civil laws in his absence, and to maintain faith in Him.

Lastly, in Part four Hobbes paints a stark picture of what human life is like when not lived according to the principles he has set forth. He calls this benighted social state the Kingdom of Darkness, which is not 'hell' as conceived in religious dogma, but which is instead life of ceaseless manipulation by others. Hobbes argues that the main causes of "spiritual darkness" are the belief in the presence of the Kingdom of God on earth, and the philosophical and historical doctrines that perpetuate this falsehood. In particular, Hobbes attacks Aristotle's philosophy of essentialism for giving credence to the belief in eternal souls and immaterial spirits, as well as many tenets of Catholicism, especially the papacy.


Leviathan Themes

Commonwealth: A multitude of people who together consent to a sovereign authority, established by contract to have absolute power over them all, for the purpose of providing peace and common defense.

Contract: Also called "covenant" or "social contract," contract is the act of giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights. People agreeing to the contract retain only those rights over others that they are content for everyone else to retain over them.

First Principles: The fundamental and irreducible facts of nature that are established by philosophical definition and upon which philosophical arguments may be built. According to Hobbes, first principles are not discovered by observation or experiment but are decided by philosophical debate and social consent.

Law of Nature: A general rule discovered by reason that forbids a person from doing anything destructive to her own life and gives her the right of self-preservation. The laws of nature state that human beings must strive for peace, which is best achieved by contract.

Leviathan: A metaphor for the state, the Leviathan is described as an artificial person whose body is made up of all the bodies of its citizens, who are the literal members of the Leviathan's body. The head of the Leviathan is the sovereign. The Leviathan is constructed through contract by people in the state of nature in order to escape the horrors of this natural condition. The power of the Leviathan protects them from the abuses of one another.

Materialism: The philosophy of materialism states that physical matter and its motion explain all phenomena in the universe and construct the only reality that human beings can experience.

Natural History: The collection of natural objects, organisms, phenomena, and facts gathered by observation.

Natural Man: An inhabitant of the state of nature. Natural men are the main characters of the narrative within Hobbes's text, who escape from their natural condition by making a contract with each other to engineer the Leviathan. Although they are "men," the term also includes women (though the gender significance of this term should not be entirely ignored).

Natural Philosophy: Natural philosophy is the study of nature and the physical universe, and was the intellectual endeavor that eventually led to the historical development of modern science. Natural philosophers such as Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle believed that natural philosophy should derive inductively the workings of nature from natural history. Hobbes believed that natural philosophy should derive deductively the workings of nature from established first principles.

Plenum: Hobbes used the term "plenum" to refer to his conception of the universe; according to this conception, the universe is wholly material in nature, making possible the condition of a vacuum in space. The assumption that the universe is a plenum is an important aspect of Hobbes's materialism.

Sovereign: The person, or group of persons, endowed with sovereignty by the social contract. The sovereign is the head of the Leviathan, the maker of laws, the judge of first principles, the foundation of all knowledge, and the defender of civil peace.

Sovereignty: Supreme authority over a commonwealth. Sovereignty is owed complete obedience by its subjects. Hobbes describes sovereignty as the soul of the Leviathan.

State of Nature: The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a "war of all against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power. Life in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short."


Source: http://www.gradesaver.com & http://www.sparknotes.com

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دوشنبه ۲۵ اسفند۱۳۹۳

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - The Hypocrite

The Hypocrite


Joseph Hall

An hypocrite is the worst kind of player, by so much as he acts the better part: which hath always two faces; ofttimes two hearts: that can compose his forehead to sadness and gravity, while he bids his heart be wanton and careless within; and in the mean time laughs within himself to think how smoothly he hath cozened the beholder: in whose silent face are written the characters of religion, which his tongue and gestures pronounce, but his hands recant: that hath a clean face and garment, with a foul soul: whose mouth belies his heart, and his fingers belie his mouth. Walking early up into the city he turns into the great church, and salutes one of the pillars on one knee; worshipping that God, which at home he cares not for: while his eye is fixed on some window, on some passenger; and his heart knows not whither his lips go: he rises, and, looking about with admiration, complains of our frozen charity; commends the ancient. At church he will ever sit where he may be seen best; and in the midst of the sermon pulls out his tables in haste, as if he feared to lose that note; when he writes, either his forgotten errand, or nothing: then he turns his Bible with a noise to seek an omitted quotation; and folds the leaf, as if he had found it; and asks aloud the name of the preacher, and repeats it; whom he publicly salutes, thanks, praises, invites, entertains with tedious good counsel, with good discourse, if it had come from an honester mouth. He can command tears when he speaks of his youth; indeed because it is past, not because it was sinful: himself is now better, but the times are worse. All other sins he reckons up with detestation, while he loves and bides his darling in his bosom. All his speech returns to himself, and every occurrent draws in a story to his own praise. When he should give, he looks about him, and says, 'Who sees me?' No alms, no prayers fall from him without a witness: belike, lest God should deny that he hath received them: and when he hath done, lest the world should not know it, his own mouth is his trumpet to proclaim it. With the superiority of his usury he builds an hospital, and harbours them whom his extortion hath spoiled: so, while he makes many beggars, he keeps some. He turneth all gnats into camels; and cares not to undo the world for a circumstance: flesh on a Friday is more abomination to him than his neighbour's bed: he abhors more, not to uncover at the name of Jesus, than to swear by the name of God. When a rhymer reads his poem to him, he begs a copy, and persuades the press. There is nothing that he dislikes in presence that in absence he censures not. He comes to the sick bed of his stepmother and weeps, when he secretly fears her recovery. He greets his friend in the street with so clear a countenance, so fast a closure, that the other thinks he reads his heart in his face; and shakes hands with an indefinite invitation of, 'When will you come?' and when his back is turned, joys that he is so well rid of a guest: yet if that guest visit him unfeared he counterfeits a smiling welcome; and excuses his cheer, when closely he frowns on his wife for too much. He shows well, and says well; and himself is the worst thing he hath. In brief, he is the stranger's saint; the neighbour's disease; the blot of goodness; a rotten stick in a dark night; a poppy in a cornfield; an ill tempered candle, with a great snuff, that in going out smells ill; an angel abroad, a devil at home; and worse when an angel than when a devil

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چهارشنبه ۱۳ اسفند۱۳۹۳

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - Of Studies

"Of Studies"

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Bacon argues that studies "serve for Delight, for Ornament, and for Ability."  For delight, Bacon means one's personal, private education; for "Ornament," he means in conversation between and among others, which Bacon labels as "Discourse."  Studies for "Ability" lead one to judgment in business and related pursuits.  From Bacon's perspective, men with worldly experience can carry out plans and understand particular circumstances, but men who study are better able to understand important political matters and know how to deal with problem according to their severity ("Marshalling of Affairs").

At the same time Bacon encourages studies, he warns that 1) too much studying leads to laziness; 2) if one uses one's knowledge too often in conversation with others, then one is showing off; and 3) to be guided solely by one's studies one becomes a scholar rather than a practical man.  Bacon's argument about the value of studies is that moderation is the key to using studies appropriately: studies are wonderful only if influenced by experience because a person's natural abilities are enhanced by studies, but studies without experience, lead to confusion in dealing with the outside world.

According to Bacon, dishonest men condemn education; stupid men admire education; but wise men use education as their real world experience dictates.  He warns the educated man not to use his education to argument unnecessarily with people; not to assume that education always leads to the correct behavior or understanding; not to use education merely to focus on conversation with others.  Rather, Bacon argues, education ("some Bookes") should be read but their advice ignored; other books, ignored completely; and a few books are to be "Chewed and Digested," that is,  understood perfectly and used to guide behavior.  In addition, Bacon advises that some books can be read by others, who take notes, and the notes can substitute for reading an entire book--but these books should not be those that cover important subjects.

Bacon returns to addressing the effects of reading, conversation, and writing: reading creates a well-rounded man; conversation makes a man think quickly; and writing, by which Bacon usually means argument essay writing, makes a man capable of thinking with logic and reason.  Further, Bacon argues, if a man doesn't write very much, he has to have a good memory to compensate for what he doesn't write; if he doesn't exercise the art of conversation, he needs to have a quick wit; and if he doesn't read very much, he has to be able "to fake it," to pretend that he knows more than he does.

History, Bacon argues, makes men wise; poetry, clever; mathematics, intellectually sharp; logic and rhetoric, skilled in argument.  Further, Bacon believes that there is no problem in thinking that cannot be fixed by the appropriate study--just as the right physical exercise cures physical illnesses.  Every disorder of the mind has a cure--for example, if a man cannot use one set of facts to prove the truth of an un-related set of facts, Bacon advises the study of law.

Every defect in thinking can be cured by another form of study.


source: http://www.enotes.com


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سه شنبه ۵ اسفند۱۳۹۳

متون برگزیده نثر ادبی - An Apology for Poetry

“An Apology for Poetry”

Sir Philip Sidney (1554 – 1586)

Among the English critics, Philip Sidney holds a very important place. His Apology for Poetry is a spirited defense of poetry against all the charges laid against it since Plato. He considers poetry as the oldest of all branches of learning and establishes its superiority. Poetry, according to Sidney, is superior to philosophy by its charm, to history by its universality, to science by its moral end, to law by its encouragement of human rather than civic goodness. Sidney deals with the usefulness of other forms of poetry also (The pastoral pleases by its helpful comments on contemporary events and life in general, the elegy by its kindly pity for the weakness of mankind, the satire by its pleasant ridicule of folly, the lyric by its sweet praise of all that is praiseworthy, and the epic by its representation of the loftiest truths in the loftiest manner).

*Reply to four charges:

Stephen Gosson in his ‘School of Abuse’, leveled four charges against poetry. They were: 1. A man could employ his time more usefully than in poetry, 2. It is the ‘mother of lies’, 3. It is immoral and ‘the nurse of abuse’, and 4. Plato had rightly banished poets from his ideal commonwealth. Sidney gallantly defends all these charges in his ‘Apology for Poetry’. Taking the first charge, he argues that poetry alone teaches and moves to virtue and therefore a man cannot better spend his time than in it. Regarding the second charge, he points out that a poet has no concern with the question of veracity or falsehood and therefore a poet can scarcely be a liar. He disposes of the third charge saying that it is a man’s wit that abuses poetry and not vice versa. To the fourth charge, he says that it is without foundation because Plato did not find fault with poetry but only the poets of his time who abused it.

His Classicism Sidney’s Apology is the first serious attempt to apply the classical rules to English poetry. He admires the great Italian writers of Renaissance (Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarch). All his pronouncements have their basis either on Plato or Aristotle or Horace. In his definition of poetry he follows both Aristotle and Horace: ‘to teach and delight’.

Sidney insists on the observance of the unities of time, place and action in English drama. He has no patience with the newly developed tragi-comedy (His whole critical outlook in the unities and the tragi-comedy was affected by the absence of really good English plays till his time). He also praises the unrhymed classical meter verse. Poetry, according to him, is the art of inventing new things, better than this world has to offer, and even prose that does so is poetry. Though he has admiration for the classical verse he has his native love of rhyme or verse. His love of the classics. To Aristotle, poetry was an art of imitation. To Sidney, it is an art of imitation for a specific purpose: poetry imitates ‘to teach and delight’ (those who practice it are called makers and prophets).

Sidney also unconsciously differs with Aristotle in the meaning he gives to imitation. Poetry is not so much an art of imitation as of invention or creation (It creates a new world altogether for the edification and delight of the reader). This brings him again close to Plato. According to him, the poet imitates not the brazen world of Nature but the golden world of the Idea itself. So, Plato’s chief objection to poetry is here answered in full. Sidney makes poetry what Plato wished it to be – a vision of the idea itself and a force for the perfection of the soul.


Source: http://paul-littcritic.blogspot.com


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پنجشنبه ۲ بهمن۱۳۹۳

ارائه مقاله در دوازدهمین کنفرانس بین المللی TELLSI

ارائه مقاله تحت عنوان

Peter Ackroyd’s Major Novels as Historiographic Metafictions

Seyyed Shahabeddin Sadati

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

در دوازدهمین کنفرانس بین المللی

انجمن آموزش زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی ایران




زاهدان 6 الی 8 اسفند


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پنجشنبه ۴ دی۱۳۹۳

دفاع از پایان نامه دکتری تخصصی با درجه عالی

دفاع از پایان نامه دکتری تخصصی تحت عنوان:

Dissident Subcultures and Universal Dissidence

in Imamu Amiri Baraka’s Selected Literary Works

با درجه عالی

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران مرکزی – 3 دی 1393



نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

چهارشنبه ۲۶ آذر۱۳۹۳

پژوهشگر برتر دانشکده ادبیات فارسی و زبانهای خارجی

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

استاد پژوهشگر برتر

دانشکده ادبیات فارسی و زبانهای خارجی - دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن


با حضور 

دكتر ابراهيم واشقاني فراهاني معاون پژوهش و فناوري دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي 

و دكتر نقي شجاع رئيس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامي واحد رودهن



برچسب‌ها: پژوهشگر برتر دانشکده ادبیات فارسی و زبانهای خارجی
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پنجشنبه ۸ آبان۱۳۹۳

درآمدی بر ادبیات 2 - Tragedy and Comedy

Thalia and Melpomene: Zeus’s Daughters

Comedy is funny; tragedy is sad. Comedy has a happy ending, tragedy an unhappy one 

The typical ending for comedy is a marriage; the typical ending for tragedy is death


Aristotle: 384 – 322 BC

The first great theorist of dramatic arts was Aristotle whose discussion of tragedy in Poetics has dominated critical thought ever since


Definition of Tragedy

A tragedy is the imitation in dramatic form of an action that is serious and complete, with incidents arousing pity and fear wherewith it effects a catharsis of such emotions 

The language is pleasurable and appropriate 

The chief characters are noble personages (“better than ourselves”) and the actions they perform are noble actions


Catharsis: “Purgation”—Emotional Release


Definition of Tragedy

The plot involves a change in the protagonist’s fortune, in which he usually falls from happiness to misery 

The protagonist, though not perfect, is hardly a bad person; his misfortunes result not from character deficiencies but rather from what Aristotle calls hamartia (tragic flaw), a criminal act committed in ignorance of some material fact or even for the sake of a greater good

A tragic plot has organic unity: the events follow not just after one another but because of one another 

The best tragic plots involve a reversal (a change from one state of things within the play to its opposite) or a discovery (a change from ignorance to knowledge) or both


“Tragic Flaw” 

“Tragic Flaw”: some fault of character such as inordinate ambition, quickness to anger, a tendency to jealousy, or overweening pride 

Jealousy: Othello’s Hamartia/Tragic Flaw



Tragic Hero

Tragic hero is a man of noble stature. He is not an ordinary man. In Greek and Shakespearean tragedy, he is usually a prince or a king

The tragic hero is good, though not perfect, and his fall results from his committing what Aristotle calls “an act of injustice” (hamatia) either through ignorance or from a conviction

The hero’s downfall is his own fault, the result of his own free choice — not the result of pure accident or someone else’s villainy or some overriding malignant fate

Nevertheless, the hero’s misfortune is not wholly deserved. The punishment exceeds the crime

Yet the tragic fall is not pure loss. Though it may result in the protagonist’s death, it involves, before his death, some increase in awareness, some gain in self-knowledge—“discovery”—a change from ignorance to knowledge

Though it arouses solemn emotions—pity and fear, says Aristotle, but compassion and awe might be better terms—tragedy, when well performed, does not leave its audience in a state of depression


Macbeth as a Tragic Hero



Because comedy exposes human folly, its function is partly critical and corrective 

Comedy reveals to us a spectacle of human ridiculousness that it makes us want to avoid 

Romantic comedy puts its emphasis upon sympathetic rather than ridiculous characters 

The norms of comedy are primarily social: Where tragedies tend to isolate their protagonists to emphasize their uniqueness, comedies put their protagonists in the midst of a group to emphasize their commonness




Melodrama, like tragedy attempts to arouse feelings of fear and pity, but it does so ordinarily through cruder means. The conflict is an oversimplified one between good and evil depicted in  absolute terms



Deus ex machina

Rescue by an act of divine intervention




More consistently than comedy, is aimed at rousing explosive laughter. But the means are cruder. The conflicts are violent and usually at the physical level


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پنجشنبه ۸ آبان۱۳۹۳

درآمدی بر ادبیات 2 - The Nature of Drama

Drama makes use of plot and characters, develops themes, arouses emotional responses, and may be either literary or commercial 

Drama is written primarily to be performed 

Drama normally presents its action

  a) through actors

  b) on a stage

  c) before an audience


Greek Theater


Aeschylus: 525 – 456 BC

The father of European drama/tragedy

The most important idea in the plays of Aeschylus: a firm belief in the power of religion, in Man’s relationship with God/gods


Sophocles: 497 – 406 BC

Sophocles represents the climax of Greek drama

Many critics consider that, apart from Shakespeare, he is the greatest dramatist the world has ever known

His plays are closer to our modern understanding and sympathy, because they seem more real and natural


Euripides: 480 – 406 BC

The main change which Euripides made was not in the shape of the plays, but in their meaning. The authority of gods is questioned


Aristophanes: 446 – 386 BC

His comedies were not about very general ideas, such as Man’s relations with God, but about local events and conditions

Aristophanes wrote about the social problems of his time


Drama in the Middle Ages & The Renaissance

Drama was reborn in the Church. It was dominated by religion, but this time it was Christianity, and not the old religion of the Greeks

Their purpose was to give people a clearer understanding of the Gospel’s stories

Taken from the Bible known as

  1) Morality Plays

  2) Miracle Plays


Elizabethan Drama

Instead of choosing subjects from the Bible, the new playwrights looked back to Roman times for their subjects

Drama became a hobby for people

Historical Plays: the history of England’s kings

William Shakespeare: the greatest playwright the world has ever known


Shakespeare’s The Globe


Direct & Intensified Influence of Drama 

Because a play presents its action through actors, its impact is direct, immediate, and heightened by the actors’ skills 

Because a play presents its action before an audience, the experience it creates is communal, and its impact is intensified



Characters are presented as speaking to themselves — that is, they think out loud



Characters turn from the persons with whom they are conversing to speak directly to (or for the benefit of) the audience, thus letting the audience know what they are really thinking or feeling as opposed to what they pretend to be thinking or feeling


Act & Scene

Act: a major division in the action of a play 

Scene: acts are subdivided into scenes. The end of a scene is usually indicated by a dropped curtain, and the end of an act by a dropped curtain and an intermission 

In Greek plays, dancing and chanting by a chorus served as a scene divider


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پنجشنبه ۳ مهر۱۳۹۳

Nelson Mandela - The Greatest Glory in Living


The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall


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یکشنبه ۲ شهریور۱۳۹۳

انتشار کتاب داستان کوتاه در عمل

انتشار کتاب تحت عنوان

داستان کوتاه در عمل

Short Story in Practice

گردآوری و تالیف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

ناشر: انتشارات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی


مطالعه این کتاب به دانشجویان زبان انگلیسی برای دروس درآمدی بر ادبیات 1 و داستان کوتاه توصیه می شود.

همچنین برای کنکور کارشناسی ارشد گرایش زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی نیز می تواند مفید باشد.

برچسب‌ها: کتاب داستان کوتاه در عمل, سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
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شنبه ۱ شهریور۱۳۹۳

بررسی مفهوم خرده فرهنگ‏ مقاومت سیاهپوستان و شکل‌گیری آن در شعر امیری باراکا

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان


بررسی مفهوم خرده فرهنگ‏ مقاومت سیاهپوستان و شکل‌گیری آن در شعر امیری باراکا


سید شهاب الدین ساداتی


در مجله علمی پژوهشی نقد زبان و ادبیات خارجی (دانشگاه شهید بهشتی)



مقاله مشترک با: جناب آقای دکتر جلال سخنور و جناب آقای دکتر علیرضا جعفری


چکیده مقاله: http://pub.sbu.ac.ir/index.aspx?pid=95808&articleid=16636


برچسب‌ها: دکتر جلال سخنور, دکتر علیرضا جعفری, سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
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پنجشنبه ۲ مرداد۱۳۹۳

پی جویی عناصر پسامدرنیسم در فیلم نمایش ترومن

انتشار مقاله ای تحت عنوان

پی جویی عناصر پسامدرنیسم در فیلم نمایش ترومن

در سایت ادبی مرور


نویسنده: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی



مطالعه این مقاله برای دانشجویان و پژوهشگرانی که به نظریات پسامدرنیسم و نقد فیلم علاقه دارند می تواند مفید واقع شود.


این مقاله به استاد بزرگوارم جناب آقای دکتر حسین پاینده تقدیم شده است.


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پنجشنبه ۱۲ تیر۱۳۹۳

سفر ابدی مادربزرگ

از مرگ نمی ترسم

من فقط نگرانم

که در شلوغی آن دنیا

مادربزرگ مهربانم را پیدا نکنم ...

(با الهام از بزرگ علوی)


باورم نمیشد سرو هم خم شود...


مادربزرگ مهربانم خداحافظ... هیچگاه از یادم نخواهی رفت... برایم مظهر عشق، صبر، آرامش، مهربانی، گذشت و زندگانی بودی...


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پنجشنبه ۱ خرداد۱۳۹۳

ارائه مقاله در کنگره ملی تفکر و پژوهش دینی


ارائه مقاله در کنگره ملی تفکر و پژوهش دینی

تحت عنوان:

«مطالعه تطبیقی پیدایش زبانها و ضرورت ترجمه

از دیدگاه قرآن کریم و تورات»

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن



مقاله حاضر مطالعه ‏ای تطبیقی از قرآن کریم و تورات در مورد خواستگاه پیدایش زبان، زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه است. با توجه به دیدگاه والتر بنیامین به کتاب آفرینش در عهد عتیق درباره آفرینش جهان و زبان، در این مقاله در ابتدا به خواستگاه الهی زبان و سپس پیدایش زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه در تورات پرداخته شده است. سپس آیات مبارک قرآن کریم در مورد آفرینش آسمانها و زمین، پیدایش زبان و آموزش آن به انسان (حضرت آدم)، و زبان به عنوان واسطه نزول وحی مطالعه شده است. دلایل وجود زبانهای گوناگون در اقوام و ملل مختلف، ارتباط و تعامل بین اقوام، و در نتیجه ضرورت وجود ترجمه از دیگر موضوعاتی است که در قرآن کریم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین ادله قرآن کریم درباره نزول قرآن کریم به زبان عربی و نه دیگر زبانها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است.

واژه‌هاي كليدي: والتر بنیامین، نامگذاری، برج بابل، کثرتِ زبانها، ضرورتِ ترجمه




مکان و زمان: اردبیل مهر 1393

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دوشنبه ۲۲ اردیبهشت۱۳۹۳

رمان پیکان زمان اثر مارتین امیس: یک فراداستان تاریخ‏ نگارانه - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

سخنرانی با موضوع:


Martin Amis’s Time’s Arrow as a Historigraphic Metafiction

Seyyed Shahabeddin Sadati



رمان پیکان زمان اثر مارتین امیس به عنوان یک فراداستان تاریخنگارانه

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی



هدف از این سمینار یک روزه، آشنایی دانشجویان با

ادبیات مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم است



زمان: چهارشنبه مورخ 24 اردیبهشت 1393 ساعت 10 صبح

مکان: دانشکده زبانهای خارجی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن



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شنبه ۲ فروردین۱۳۹۳

In Memory of Amiri Baraka 1934 - 2014


Long Live the Spirit of

Amiri Baraka

October 7, 1934 - January 9, 2014


Amiri Baraka's Biography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiri_Baraka


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جمعه ۱ فروردین۱۳۹۳

فراداستان و تکنیکهای آن

«روایتهای خودشیفته: تعریف فراداستان و تکنیکهای آن»

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی 

در نشریه الکترونیک مرور

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سه شنبه ۲۰ اسفند۱۳۹۲

Realism: Definition & Main Features

Otto Griebel’s “The International”


Realism in the arts may be generally defined as the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. The term originated in the 19th century, and was used to describe the work of Gustave Courbet and a group of painters who rejected idealization, focusing instead on everyday life - Wikipedia

Realism vs. Romanticism

Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Instead it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Realist works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life, and often reflected the changes wrought by the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions - Wikipedia


Main Features

Truthful representation in art (e.g. literature & painting), of contemporary life and manners

Scientific method: Objectivity & observation in representation

Middle class art

The personality of the author was to be suppressed, or was at least to reduce into the background, since reality was to be seen “as it is” - Dr. Manuchehr Haghighi, Literary Schools


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دوشنبه ۱۹ اسفند۱۳۹۲

تحلیل شعر «عروسک نازی ها» اثر یوسف کومانیاکا


تحلیل شعر «عروسک نازی ها» اثر یوسف کومانیاکا: شعر معاصر آمریکا

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن


ترجمه شعر «عروسک نازی ها»

بنفشه واحدی

دانشجو کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی


در نشریه اینترنتی مرور

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سه شنبه ۱۳ اسفند۱۳۹۲

تحلیل شعر جان وِین عزیز اثر لوئیز اردریک


تحلیل شعر «جان وِین عزیز» اثر لوئیز اردریک: شعر معاصر آمریکا

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن

ترجمه شعر «جان وین عزیز»

مژگان مرادی

کارشناس مترجمی زبان انگلیسی

در سایت ادبی مرور

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سه شنبه ۶ اسفند۱۳۹۲

باشو غریبه کوچک از دیدگاه نظریه مهاجرت هومی بابا و رابین کوهن - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان

تحلیل فیلم باشو غریبه کوچک از دیدگاه نظریه مهاجرت هومی بابا و رابین کوهن

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

در نشریه الکترونیک مرور (ادبیات ایران)

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چهارشنبه ۳۰ بهمن۱۳۹۲

خیانت در معنا و یا کفاره اخلاقی: مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان

ارائه مقاله در دهمین هم اندیشی حلقه نشانه شناسی تهران - نشانه شناسی اخلاق تحت عنوان:

خیانت در معنا و یا کفاره اخلاقی: مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم  تاوان

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن

بهاره سقازاده

دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات فرانسه دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران


این مقاله تلاش دارد تا با توجه به نظریات لیندا هاچن و پتریشیا وا در خصوص فراداستان، و تعاریف اخلاق و کارکرد آن به مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان (بر اساس رمان تاوان نوشته یان مک ایوان به عنوان یک فراداستان) از دیدگاه اخلاقی بپردازد. در تعریف اخلاق باید گفت که اخلاق از وجدانیات فاصله گرفته و با رفتن به سوی فراخود و آفرینش شاهکار، تولید معنایی جدید میکند که مخاطب را همواره شگفت زده میکند. فراداستان داستانی است که درباره داستان نویسی باشد. به عبارت دیگر دغدغه اصلی آن نوشتارِ داستان است. نوشتار مهمترین نشانه در بررسی فیلم تاوان است، زیرا عناصر فیلم همانند تیتراژ، موسیقی، حرکت دوربین (به ویژه بر روی واژگان نوشته شده)، و معنای کلی فیلم در ارتباط با این نشانه است که تعبیر میشوند. در کنار نوشتار، عمل غیر اخلاقی (دروغ گویی) و عذاب وجدان به عنوان دیگر مسائل مهم در این فیلم خودنمایی میکنند. عمل غیراخلاقی در حق خواهر و پسر باغبانشان تا جایی ذهن یکی از شخصیتهای اصلی داستان (برایانی به عنوان کنشگر) را به خود مشغول داشته که برای جبران اخلاقی، دست به نوشتن یک رمان می‏زند. در فیلم تاوان نوشتار به عنوان نشانه مرکزی کارکرد اخلاقی پیدا کرده است و تبدیل به یک کفاره دینی – مسیحی برای جبران گناهِ مرتکب شده میشود. به بیانی روشن‏تر، نوشتار در یک رابطه تعاملی با سوژه‏ها قرار گرفته، از نشانه فراتر رفته و با اضافه شدن یک معنا به آن تبدیل به یک ارزش اخلاقی شده است. به عبارتی دیگر، برایانی در کنشی با استفاده از زبان، جبران نوشتاری را به جای کفاره اخلاقی قرار میدهد و بدین ترتیب گفتمان جدید تولید میکند. در آخر، با استفاده از روشهایی همچون مربع نشانه شناختی گریماس و طرحواره تنشی فونتانی تلاش شده نوشتار به عنوان یک کفاره اخلاقی در ارتباط با عناصری همچون سن و سال، وضعیت روحی – روانی، رفتارهای اخلاقی و غیراخلاقی برایانی همانند نفرت و عذاب وجدان از لحاظ نشانه – معنا شناختی اعضای مکتب نشانه شناختی پاریس مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژگان: تاوان نوشتاری، فراداستان، کفاره اخلاقی، مک ایوان

محل برگزاری همایش: تهران دارآباد دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی

زمان: 14 اسفند 1392

لینک دریافت برنامه هم اندیشی:




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دوشنبه ۱۶ دی۱۳۹۲

انتشار مقاله در ژورنال بین المللی International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان:

Rebelling against the Dominant White Culture: Foucauldian Study of the Concept of Power in Imamu Amiri Baraka's Dutchman

در ژورنال بین المللی International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research

مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

لینک دریافت مقاله:




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دوشنبه ۲۵ آذر۱۳۹۲

ارائه مقاله در همایش ملی افق های پدیدار در آموزش زبان دانشگاه آزاد اهر آذر 1392

ارائه مقاله در همایش ملی افق های پدیدار در آموزش زبان دانشگاه آزاد اهر 28 و 29 آذر 1392


تحت عنوان:

How to Teach “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an Academic Literary Course in EFL Classes

نویسنده مقاله: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

توضیح: «چگونگی تدریس درس نمونه های شعر ساده انگلیسی در دانشگاه»

چکیده مقاله در زیر آمده، مقاله کامل را پس از برگزاری همایش نیز در اینجا قرار می دهم



The present study attempts to analyze the function and importance of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an academic literary course in classes of teaching English as Second or Foreign Language. Firstly, this study considers different views about using literature in EFL / ESL classes. It reviews briefly the history of using literature in different methods of teaching English as second / foreign language. Then, the definition of poetry, its importance in EFL / ESL classes, and the difficulties of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are brought. How to select and develop poetic texts in EFL / ESL classes are other important matters which have been scrutinized in this study. Techniques, strategies, activities, and tips of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are the other major issues which have been studied and explained in this study. 

Keywords: EFL / ESL; English Poetry; Teaching Poetry; Samples of Simple Poetry


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پنجشنبه ۲۱ آذر۱۳۹۲

انتشار درسنامه زبانشناسی عمومی سوسور - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

انتشار ترجمه درسنامه زبانشناسی عمومی سوسور در نشریه الکترونیک آدم برفی ها

مترجم: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

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یکشنبه ۲۶ آبان۱۳۹۲

انتشار مقاله درباره امیری باراکا در ژورنال بین المللی AcademicJournals


انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان

The influence of ideological state apparatuses in identity formation: Althusserian reading of Amiri Baraka’s “In Memory of Radio” 

در ژورنال بین المللی AcademicJournals

 مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

لینک دریافت مقاله



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