جمعه 2 آبان1393

درآمدی بر ادبیات 2 - Oedipus Rex

Oedipus Rex

Sophocles

 

 

 

Context

Greek theater was very different from what we call theater today. It was, first of all, part of a religious festival. To attend a performance of one of these plays was an act of worship, not entertainment or intellectual pastime. But it is difficult for us to even begin to understand this aspect of the Greek theater, because the religion in question was very different from modern religions.

A second way in which Greek theater was different from modern theater is in its cultural centrality: every citizen attended these plays. Greek plays were put on at annual festivals (at the beginning of spring), often for as many as 15,000 spectators at once. They dazzled viewers with their special effects, singing, and dancing, as well as with their beautiful language. At the end of each year’s festivals, judges would vote to decide which playwright’s play was the best. In these competitions, Sophocles was king.

Greek theater still needs to be read, but we must not forget that, because it is so alien to us, reading these plays calls not only for analysis, but also for imagination.

 

Plot Overview

A plague has stricken Thebes. The citizens gather outside the palace of their king, Oedipus, asking him to take action. Oedipus replies that he already sent his brother-in-law, Creon, to the oracle at Delphi to learn how to help the city. Creon returns with a message from the oracle: the plague will end when the murderer of Laius, former king of Thebes, is caught and expelled; the murderer is within the city. Oedipus questions Creon about the murder of Laius, who was killed by thieves on his way to consult an oracle. Only one of his fellow travelers escaped alive. Oedipus promises to solve the mystery of Laius’s death, vowing to curse and drive out the murderer.

Oedipus sends for Tiresias, the blind prophet, and asks him what he knows about the murder. Tiresias responds cryptically, lamenting his ability to see the truth when the truth brings nothing but pain. At first he refuses to tell Oedipus what he knows. Oedipus curses and insults the old man, going so far as to accuse him of the murder. These taunts provoke Tiresias into revealing that Oedipus himself is the murderer. Oedipus naturally refuses to believe Tiresias’s accusation. He accuses Creon and Tiresias of conspiring against his life, and charges Tiresias with insanity. He asks why Tiresias did nothing when Thebes suffered under a plague once before. At that time, a Sphinx held the city captive and refused to leave until someone answered her riddle. Oedipus brags that he alone was able to solve the puzzle. Tiresias defends his skills as a prophet, noting that Oedipus’s parents found him trustworthy. At this mention of his parents, Oedipus, who grew up in the distant city of Corinth, asks how Tiresias knew his parents. But Tiresias answers enigmatically. Then, before leaving the stage, Tiresias puts forth one last riddle, saying that the murderer of Laius will turn out to be both father and brother to his own children, and the son of his own wife.

After Tiresias leaves, Oedipus threatens Creon with death or exile for conspiring with the prophet. Oedipus’s wife, Jocasta (also the widow of King Laius), enters and asks why the men shout at one another. Oedipus explains to Jocasta that the prophet has charged him with Laius’s murder, and Jocasta replies that all prophecies are false. As proof, she notes that the Delphic oracle once told Laius he would be murdered by his son, when in fact his son was cast out of Thebes as a baby, and Laius was murdered by a band of thieves. Her description of Laius’s murder, however, sounds familiar to Oedipus, and he asks further questions. Jocasta tells him that Laius was killed at a three-way crossroads, just before Oedipus arrived in Thebes. Oedipus, stunned, tells his wife that he may be the one who murdered Laius. He tells Jocasta that, long ago, when he was the prince of Corinth, he overheard someone mention at a banquet that he was not really the son of the king and queen. He therefore traveled to the oracle of Delphi, who did not answer him but did tell him he would murder his father and sleep with his mother. Hearing this, Oedipus fled his home, never to return. It was then, on the journey that would take him to Thebes, that Oedipus was confronted and harassed by a group of travelers, whom he killed in self-defense. This skirmish occurred at the very crossroads where Laius was killed.

Oedipus sends for the man who survived the attack, a shepherd, in the hope that he will not be identified as the murderer. Outside the palace, a messenger approaches Jocasta and tells her that he has come from Corinth to inform Oedipus that his father, Polybus, is dead, and that Corinth has asked Oedipus to come and rule there in his place. Jocasta rejoices, convinced that Polybus’s death from natural causes has disproved the prophecy that Oedipus would murder his father. At Jocasta’s summons, Oedipus comes outside, hears the news, and rejoices with her. He now feels much more inclined to agree with the queen in deeming prophecies worthless and viewing chance as the principle governing the world. But while Oedipus finds great comfort in the fact that one-half of the prophecy has been disproved, he still fears the other half—the half that claimed he would sleep with his mother.

The messenger remarks that Oedipus need not worry, because Polybus and his wife, Merope, are not Oedipus’s biological parents. The messenger, a shepherd by profession, knows firsthand that Oedipus came to Corinth as an orphan. One day long ago, he was tending his sheep when another shepherd approached him carrying a baby, its ankles pinned together. The messenger took the baby to the royal family of Corinth, and they raised him as their own. That baby was Oedipus. Oedipus asks who the other shepherd was, and the messenger answers that he was a servant of Laius.

Oedipus asks that this shepherd be brought forth to testify, but Jocasta, beginning to suspect the truth, begs her husband not to seek more information. She runs back into the palace. The shepherd then enters. Oedipus interrogates him, asking who gave him the baby. The shepherd refuses to disclose anything, and Oedipus threatens him with torture. Finally, he answers that the child came from the house of Laius. Questioned further, he answers that the baby was in fact the child of Laius himself, and that it was Jocasta who gave him the infant, ordering him to kill it, as it had been prophesied that the child would kill his parents. But the shepherd pitied the child, and decided that the prophecy could be avoided just as well if the child were to grow up in a foreign city, far from his true parents. The shepherd therefore passed the boy on to the shepherd in Corinth.

Realizing who he is and who his parents are, Oedipus screams that he sees the truth and flees back into the palace. The shepherd and the messenger slowly exit the stage. A second messenger enters and describes scenes of suffering. Jocasta has hanged herself, and Oedipus, finding her dead, has pulled the pins from her robe and stabbed out his own eyes. Oedipus now emerges from the palace, bleeding and begging to be exiled. He asks Creon to send him away from Thebes and to look after his daughters, Antigone and Ismene. Creon, covetous of royal power, is all too happy to oblige.

 

Themes

The Willingness to Ignore the Truth

When Oedipus and Jocasta begin to get close to the truth about Laius’s murder, in Oedipus the King, Oedipus fastens onto a detail in the hope of exonerating himself. Jocasta says that she was told that Laius was killed by “strangers,” whereas Oedipus knows that he acted alone when he killed a man in similar circumstances. This is an extraordinary moment because it calls into question the entire truth-seeking process Oedipus believes himself to be undertaking. Both Oedipus and Jocasta act as though the servant’s story, once spoken, is irrefutable history. Neither can face the possibility of what it would mean if the servant were wrong. This is perhaps why Jocasta feels she can tell Oedipus of the prophecy that her son would kill his father, and Oedipus can tell her about the similar prophecy given him by an oracle (867–875), and neither feels compelled to remark on the coincidence; or why Oedipus can hear the story of Jocasta binding her child’s ankles (780–781) and not think of his own swollen feet. While the information in these speeches is largely intended to make the audience painfully aware of the tragic irony, it also emphasizes just how desperately Oedipus and Jocasta do not want to speak the obvious truth: they look at the circumstances and details of everyday life and pretend not to see them.

 

The Limits of Free Will

Prophecy is a central part of Oedipus the King. The play begins with Creon’s return from the oracle at Delphi, where he has learned that the plague will be lifted if Thebes banishes the man who killed Laius. Tiresias prophesies the capture of one who is both father and brother to his own children. Oedipus tells Jocasta of a prophecy he heard as a youth, that he would kill his father and sleep with his mother, and Jocasta tells Oedipus of a similar prophecy given to Laius, that her son would grow up to kill his father. Oedipus and Jocasta debate the extent to which prophecies should be trusted at all, and when all of the prophecies come true, it appears that one of Sophocles’ aims is to justify the powers of the gods and prophets, which had recently come under attack in fifth-century b.c. Athens.

Sophocles’ audience would, of course, have known the story of Oedipus, which only increases the sense of complete inevitability about how the play would end. It is difficult to say how justly one can accuse Oedipus of being “blind” or foolish when he seems to have no choice about fulfilling the prophecy: he is sent away from Thebes as a baby and by a remarkable coincidence saved and raised as a prince in Corinth. Hearing that he is fated to kill his father, he flees Corinth and, by a still more remarkable coincidence, ends up back in Thebes, now king and husband in his actual father’s place. Oedipus seems only to desire to flee his fate, but his fate continually catches up with him. Many people have tried to argue that Oedipus brings about his catastrophe because of a “tragic flaw,” but nobody has managed to create a consensus about what Oedipus’s flaw actually is. Perhaps his story is meant to show that error and disaster can happen to anyone, that human beings are relatively powerless before fate or the gods, and that a cautious humility is the best attitude toward life.

 

Sight and Blindness

References to eyesight and vision, both literal and metaphorical, are very frequent in the play. Quite often, the image of clear vision is used as a metaphor for knowledge and insight. In fact, this metaphor is so much a part of the Greek way of thinking that it is almost not a metaphor at all, just as in modern English: to say “I see the truth” or “I see the way things are” is a perfectly ordinary use of language. However, the references to eyesight and insight in the play form a meaningful pattern in combination with the references to literal and metaphorical blindness. Oedipus is famed for his clear-sightedness and quick comprehension, but he discovers that he has been blind to the truth for many years, and then he blinds himself so as not to have to look on his own children/siblings. Tiresias is blind, yet he sees farther than others. Overall, the play seems to say that human beings can demonstrate remarkable powers of intellectual penetration and insight, and that they have a great capacity for knowledge, but that even the smartest human being is liable to error, that the human capability for knowledge is ultimately quite limited and unreliable.

 

Symbols

Oedipus’s Swollen Foot

Oedipus gets his name, as the Corinthian messenger tells us in Oedipus the King, from the fact that he was left in the mountains with his ankles pinned together. Jocasta explains that Laius abandoned him in this state on a barren mountain shortly after he was born. The injury leaves Oedipus with a vivid scar for the rest of his life. Oedipus’s injury symbolizes the way in which fate has marked him and set him apart. It also symbolizes the way his movements have been confined and constrained since birth, by Apollo’s prophecy to Laius.

 

The Three-way Crossroads

In Oedipus the King, Jocasta says that Laius was slain at a place where three roads meet. This crossroads is referred to a number of times during the play, and it symbolizes the crucial moment, long before the events of the play, when Oedipus began to fulfill the dreadful prophecy that he would murder his father and marry his mother. A crossroads is a place where a choice has to be made, so crossroads usually symbolize moments where decisions will have important consequences but where different choices are still possible. In Oedipus the King, the crossroads is part of the distant past, dimly remembered, and Oedipus was not aware at the time that he was making a fateful decision. In this play, the crossroads symbolizes fate and the awesome power of prophecy rather than freedom and choice.

 

Analysis of Major Characters

Oedipus

Oedipus is a man of swift action and great insight. At the opening of Oedipus the King, we see that these qualities make him an excellent ruler who anticipates his subjects’ needs. When the citizens of Thebes beg him to do something about the plague, for example, Oedipus is one step ahead of them—he has already sent Creon to the oracle at Delphi for advice. But later, we see that Oedipus’s habit of acting swiftly has a dangerous side. When he tells the story of killing the band of travelers who attempted to shove him off the three-way crossroads, Oedipus shows that he has the capacity to behave rashly.

At the beginning of Oedipus the King, Oedipus is hugely confident, and with good reason. He has saved Thebes from the curse of the Sphinx and become king virtually overnight. He proclaims his name proudly as though it were itself a healing charm: “Here I am myself— / you all know me, the world knows my fame: / I am Oedipus” (7–9). By the end of this tragedy, however, Oedipus’s name will have become a curse, so much so that, in Oedipus at Colonus, the Leader of the Chorus is terrified even to hear it and cries: “You, you’re that man?” (238).

Oedipus’s swiftness and confidence continue to the very end of Oedipus the King. We see him interrogate Creon, call for Tiresias, threaten to banish Tiresias and Creon, call for the servant who escaped the attack on Laius, call for the shepherd who brought him to Corinth, rush into the palace to stab out his own eyes, and then demand to be exiled. He is constantly in motion, seemingly trying to keep pace with his fate, even as it goes well beyond his reach.

 

The Chorus

The Chorus reacts to events as they happen, generally in a predictable, though not consistent, way. It generally expresses a longing for calm and stability. For example, in Oedipus the King, it asks Oedipus not to banish Creon (725–733). In moments like this, the Chorus seeks to maintain the status quo, which is generally seen to be the wrong thing. The Chorus is not cowardly so much as nervous and complacent—above all, it hopes to prevent upheaval.

At the end of Oedipus the King, the Chorus conflates the people of “Thebes” with the audience in the theater. The message of the play, delivered directly to that audience, is one of complete despair: “count no man happy till he dies, free of pain at last” (1684). Because the Chorus, and not one of the individual characters, delivers this message, the play ends by giving the audience a false sense of closure. That is, the Chorus makes it sound like Oedipus is dead, and their final line suggests there might be some relief. But the audience must immediately realize, of course, that Oedipus is not dead. He wanders, blind and miserable, somewhere outside of Thebes. The audience, like Oedipus, does not know what the future holds in store. The play’s ability to universalize, to make the audience feel implicated in the emotions of the Chorus as well as those of the protagonist, is what makes it a particularly harrowing tragedy, an archetypal story in Western culture.

 

source: sparknotes.com

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

پنجشنبه 3 مهر1393

Nelson Mandela - The Greatest Glory in Living

 

The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

یکشنبه 2 شهریور1393

انتشار کتاب داستان کوتاه در عمل

انتشار کتاب تحت عنوان

داستان کوتاه در عمل

Short Story in Practice

گردآوری و تالیف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

ناشر: انتشارات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

 

مطالعه این کتاب به دانشجویان زبان انگلیسی برای دروس درآمدی بر ادبیات 1 و داستان کوتاه توصیه می شود.

همچنین برای کنکور کارشناسی ارشد گرایش زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی نیز می تواند مفید باشد.


برچسب‌ها: کتاب داستان کوتاه در عمل, سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

شنبه 1 شهریور1393

بررسی مفهوم خرده فرهنگ‏ مقاومت سیاهپوستان و شکل‌گیری آن در شعر امیری باراکا

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان

 

بررسی مفهوم خرده فرهنگ‏ مقاومت سیاهپوستان و شکل‌گیری آن در شعر امیری باراکا

 

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

 

در مجله علمی پژوهشی نقد زبان و ادبیات خارجی (دانشگاه شهید بهشتی)

 

 

مقاله مشترک با: جناب آقای دکتر جلال سخنور و جناب آقای دکتر علیرضا جعفری

 

چکیده مقاله: http://pub.sbu.ac.ir/index.aspx?pid=95808&articleid=16636

 


برچسب‌ها: دکتر جلال سخنور, دکتر علیرضا جعفری, سید شهاب الدین ساداتی
نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

پنجشنبه 2 مرداد1393

پی جویی عناصر پسامدرنیسم در فیلم نمایش ترومن

انتشار مقاله ای تحت عنوان

پی جویی عناصر پسامدرنیسم در فیلم نمایش ترومن

در سایت ادبی مرور

 

نویسنده: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

 

 

مطالعه این مقاله برای دانشجویان و پژوهشگرانی که به نظریات پسامدرنیسم و نقد فیلم علاقه دارند می تواند مفید واقع شود.

 

این مقاله به استاد بزرگوارم جناب آقای دکتر حسین پاینده تقدیم شده است.

 

لینک دریافت مطلب:

http://www.morour.ir/index.php/2-uncategorised/1400-2014-07-16-11-54-20

 

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پنجشنبه 12 تیر1393

سفر ابدی مادربزرگ

از مرگ نمی ترسم

من فقط نگرانم

که در شلوغی آن دنیا

مادربزرگ مهربانم را پیدا نکنم ...

(با الهام از بزرگ علوی)

 

باورم نمیشه سرو هم خم شود...

 

مادربزرگ مهربانم خداحافظ... هیچگاه از یادم نخواهی رفت... برایم مظهر عشق، صبر، آرامش، مهربانی، گذشت و زندگانی بودی...

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

پنجشنبه 1 خرداد1393

ارائه مقاله در کنگره ملی تفکر و پژوهش دینی

 

ارائه مقاله در کنگره ملی تفکر و پژوهش دینی

تحت عنوان:

«مطالعه تطبیقی پیدایش زبانها و ضرورت ترجمه

از دیدگاه قرآن کریم و تورات»

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن

 

چکیده

مقاله حاضر مطالعه ‏ای تطبیقی از قرآن کریم و تورات در مورد خواستگاه پیدایش زبان، زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه است. با توجه به دیدگاه والتر بنیامین به کتاب آفرینش در عهد عتیق درباره آفرینش جهان و زبان، در این مقاله در ابتدا به خواستگاه الهی زبان و سپس پیدایش زبانهای گوناگون و ضرورت ترجمه در تورات پرداخته شده است. سپس آیات مبارک قرآن کریم در مورد آفرینش آسمانها و زمین، پیدایش زبان و آموزش آن به انسان (حضرت آدم)، و زبان به عنوان واسطه نزول وحی مطالعه شده است. دلایل وجود زبانهای گوناگون در اقوام و ملل مختلف، ارتباط و تعامل بین اقوام، و در نتیجه ضرورت وجود ترجمه از دیگر موضوعاتی است که در قرآن کریم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. همچنین ادله قرآن کریم درباره نزول قرآن کریم به زبان عربی و نه دیگر زبانها مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است.

واژه‌هاي كليدي: والتر بنیامین، نامگذاری، برج بابل، کثرتِ زبانها، ضرورتِ ترجمه

 

 

 

مکان و زمان: اردبیل مهر 1393

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

جمعه 26 اردیبهشت1393

Walt Disney

 

If it can be dreamed, it can be done

Walt Disney

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه 22 اردیبهشت1393

رمان پیکان زمان اثر مارتین امیس: یک فراداستان تاریخ‏ نگارانه - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی


سخنرانی با موضوع:

Martin Amis’s Time’s Arrow as a Historigraphic Metafiction

Seyyed Shahabeddin Sadati


رمان پیکان زمان اثر مارتین امیس به عنوان یک فراداستان تاریخنگارانه

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی


 

هدف از این سمینار یک روزه، آشنایی دانشجویان با

ادبیات مدرنیسم و پست مدرنیسم است


 

زمان: چهارشنبه مورخ 24 اردیبهشت 1393 ساعت 10 صبح

مکان: دانشکده زبانهای خارجی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن


نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

شنبه 2 فروردین1393

In Memory of Amiri Baraka 1934 - 2014


Long Live the Spirit of

Amiri Baraka

October 7, 1934 - January 9, 2014


Amiri Baraka's Biography: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amiri_Baraka


 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

جمعه 1 فروردین1393

فراداستان و تکنیکهای آن


«روایتهای خودشیفته: تعریف فراداستان و تکنیکهای آن»

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی 

در نشریه الکترونیک مرور

لینک مشاهده مطلب:

http://morour.ir/index.php/2-uncategorised/1093-2014-03-15-19-01-41


نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

جمعه 1 فروردین1393

سال نو مبارکباد

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سه شنبه 20 اسفند1392

Realism: Definition & Main Features



Otto Griebel’s “The International”


Definition

Realism in the arts may be generally defined as the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. The term originated in the 19th century, and was used to describe the work of Gustave Courbet and a group of painters who rejected idealization, focusing instead on everyday life - Wikipedia


Realism vs. Romanticism

Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Instead it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Realist works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life, and often reflected the changes wrought by the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions - Wikipedia


 

Main Features

Truthful representation in art (e.g. literature & painting), of contemporary life and manners

Scientific method: Objectivity & observation in representation

Middle class art

The personality of the author was to be suppressed, or was at least to reduce into the background, since reality was to be seen “as it is” - Dr. Manuchehr Haghighi, Literary Schools

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه 19 اسفند1392

تحلیل شعر «عروسک نازی ها» اثر یوسف کومانیاکا

انتشار

تحلیل شعر «عروسک نازی ها» اثر یوسف کومانیاکا: شعر معاصر آمریکا

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن

 

ترجمه شعر «عروسک نازی ها»

بنفشه واحدی

دانشجو کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی

 

در نشریه اینترنتی مرور

لینک مشاهده مطلب:

http://www.morour.ir/index.php/2-uncategorised/1053-2014-03-10-18-07-32


نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 13 اسفند1392

تحلیل شعر جان وِین عزیز اثر لوئیز اردریک

انتشار

تحلیل شعر «جان وِین عزیز» اثر لوئیز اردریک: شعر معاصر آمریکا

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن


ترجمه شعر «جان وین عزیز»

مژگان مرادی

کارشناس مترجمی زبان انگلیسی


در سایت ادبی مرور



لینک مشاهده مطلب:

http://morour.ir/index.php/2-uncategorised/1033-2014-03-04-12-14-44

http://www.tebyan.net/newindex.aspx?pid=273727


 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 6 اسفند1392

باشو غریبه کوچک از دیدگاه نظریه مهاجرت هومی بابا و رابین کوهن - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی


انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان

تحلیل فیلم باشو غریبه کوچک از دیدگاه نظریه مهاجرت هومی بابا و رابین کوهن

سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

در نشریه الکترونیک مرور (ادبیات ایران)



لینک مشاهده مقاله:

http://morour.ir/index.php/2-uncategorised/1020-2014-02-24-13-41-24#_ftn13

 

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

یکشنبه 4 اسفند1392

زرتشت - خدمت به مردم

زرتشت:

 

خدمت به مردم تنها یک وظیفه نیست

بلکه کاری است شادی افزا

 

 

در معبد زرتشتیان در کرمان بهمن 92 این جمله را دیدم که به نظرم بسیار عمیق و زیبا آمد.

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

چهارشنبه 30 بهمن1392

خیانت در معنا و یا کفاره اخلاقی: مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان


ارائه مقاله در دهمین هم اندیشی حلقه نشانه شناسی تهران - نشانه شناسی اخلاق تحت عنوان:



خیانت در معنا و یا کفاره اخلاقی: مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم  تاوان


سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رودهن

بهاره سقازاده

دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد زبان و ادبیات فرانسه دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

چکیده

این مقاله تلاش دارد تا با توجه به نظریات لیندا هاچن و پتریشیا وا در خصوص فراداستان، و تعاریف اخلاق و کارکرد آن به مطالعه نشانه – معنا شناختی فیلم تاوان (بر اساس رمان تاوان نوشته یان مک ایوان به عنوان یک فراداستان) از دیدگاه اخلاقی بپردازد. در تعریف اخلاق باید گفت که اخلاق از وجدانیات فاصله گرفته و با رفتن به سوی فراخود و آفرینش شاهکار، تولید معنایی جدید میکند که مخاطب را همواره شگفت زده میکند. فراداستان داستانی است که درباره داستان نویسی باشد. به عبارت دیگر دغدغه اصلی آن نوشتارِ داستان است. نوشتار مهمترین نشانه در بررسی فیلم تاوان است، زیرا عناصر فیلم همانند تیتراژ، موسیقی، حرکت دوربین (به ویژه بر روی واژگان نوشته شده)، و معنای کلی فیلم در ارتباط با این نشانه است که تعبیر میشوند. در کنار نوشتار، عمل غیر اخلاقی (دروغ گویی) و عذاب وجدان به عنوان دیگر مسائل مهم در این فیلم خودنمایی میکنند. عمل غیراخلاقی در حق خواهر و پسر باغبانشان تا جایی ذهن یکی از شخصیتهای اصلی داستان (برایانی به عنوان کنشگر) را به خود مشغول داشته که برای جبران اخلاقی، دست به نوشتن یک رمان می‏زند. در فیلم تاوان نوشتار به عنوان نشانه مرکزی کارکرد اخلاقی پیدا کرده است و تبدیل به یک کفاره دینی – مسیحی برای جبران گناهِ مرتکب شده میشود. به بیانی روشن‏تر، نوشتار در یک رابطه تعاملی با سوژه‏ها قرار گرفته، از نشانه فراتر رفته و با اضافه شدن یک معنا به آن تبدیل به یک ارزش اخلاقی شده است. به عبارتی دیگر، برایانی در کنشی با استفاده از زبان، جبران نوشتاری را به جای کفاره اخلاقی قرار میدهد و بدین ترتیب گفتمان جدید تولید میکند. در آخر، با استفاده از روشهایی همچون مربع نشانه شناختی گریماس و طرحواره تنشی فونتانی تلاش شده نوشتار به عنوان یک کفاره اخلاقی در ارتباط با عناصری همچون سن و سال، وضعیت روحی – روانی، رفتارهای اخلاقی و غیراخلاقی برایانی همانند نفرت و عذاب وجدان از لحاظ نشانه – معنا شناختی اعضای مکتب نشانه شناختی پاریس مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژگان: تاوان نوشتاری، فراداستان، کفاره اخلاقی، مک ایوان



محل برگزاری همایش: تهران دارآباد دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی

زمان: 14 اسفند 1392

لینک دریافت برنامه هم اندیشی:

http://iransemiotics.ir/?p=10692

 


 


نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه 16 دی1392

انتشار مقاله در ژورنال بین المللی International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان:

Rebelling against the Dominant White Culture: Foucauldian Study of the Concept of Power in Imamu Amiri Baraka's Dutchman

در ژورنال بین المللی International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research

مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

لینک دریافت مقاله:

http://journalijiar.com/uploads/2014-01-08_062723_658.pdf

 

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 10 دی1392

نمیدونم این جملات از کیه ولی عجب حرفیه!



برای کسی که می‏فهمه، هیچ توضیحی لازم نیست

برای کسی که نمی‏فهمه، هر توضیحی اضافه است


نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه 25 آذر1392

ارائه مقاله در همایش ملی افق های پدیدار در آموزش زبان دانشگاه آزاد اهر آذر 1392

ارائه مقاله در همایش ملی افق های پدیدار در آموزش زبان دانشگاه آزاد اهر 28 و 29 آذر 1392

 

تحت عنوان:

How to Teach “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an Academic Literary Course in EFL Classes

نویسنده مقاله: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

توضیح: «چگونگی تدریس درس نمونه های شعر ساده انگلیسی در دانشگاه»

چکیده مقاله در زیر آمده، مقاله کامل را پس از برگزاری همایش نیز در اینجا قرار می دهم

 

Abstract

The present study attempts to analyze the function and importance of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” as an academic literary course in classes of teaching English as Second or Foreign Language. Firstly, this study considers different views about using literature in EFL / ESL classes. It reviews briefly the history of using literature in different methods of teaching English as second / foreign language. Then, the definition of poetry, its importance in EFL / ESL classes, and the difficulties of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are brought. How to select and develop poetic texts in EFL / ESL classes are other important matters which have been scrutinized in this study. Techniques, strategies, activities, and tips of teaching “Samples of Simple English Poetry” are the other major issues which have been studied and explained in this study. 

Keywords: EFL / ESL; English Poetry; Teaching Poetry; Samples of Simple Poetry

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

پنجشنبه 21 آذر1392

انتشار درسنامه زبانشناسی عمومی سوسور - سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

انتشار ترجمه درسنامه زبانشناسی عمومی سوسور در نشریه الکترونیک آدم برفی ها

مترجم: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

لینک دریافت مطلب:

http://adambarfiha.com/?p=8256

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

یکشنبه 26 آبان1392

انتشار مقاله درباره امیری باراکا در ژورنال بین المللی AcademicJournals

انتشار مقاله تحت عنوان

The influence of ideological state apparatuses in identity formation: Althusserian reading of Amiri Baraka’s “In Memory of Radio” 

در ژورنال بین المللی AcademicJournals

 مولف: سید شهاب الدین ساداتی

لینک دریافت مقاله

http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/IJEL/article-abstract/A621DF641598

 

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 14 آبان1392

کتاب ترجمه ادبی نوشته سید شهاب الدین ساداتی و استاد روزبه گیتو چاپ شد

 


برچسب‌ها: کتاب ترجمه ادبی, سید شهاب الدین ساداتی و روزبه گیتو, انتشارات رهنما
نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

پنجشنبه 9 آبان1392

حکیم لاادری!

بحث با ناقص عقلان شیوه استاد نیست

علم افلاطون حریف جهل مادرزاد نیست

 

حکیم لاادری!

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 2 مهر1392

فروید - حقیقت انسان

 

حقیقت انسان به آنچه اظهار میدارد نیست

بلکه حقیقت او نهفته در آن چیزی است که از اظهار آن عاجز است

بنابراین اگر خواستی او را بشناسی

نه به گفته هایش بلکه به ناگفته هایش گوش نکن

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 2 مهر1392

کارل گوستاو یونگ - درد آگاه شدن

 

هیچ آگاه شدنی بدون درد نخواهد بود...

کارل گوستاو یونگ

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 2 مهر1392

موریس مترلینگ - عشق

اگر کسی را یافتید که حاضر بود

برای حفظ رابطه تان از بدترین شرایط عبور کند

هرگز عشقش را دست کم نگیرید

 

موریس مترلینگ

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

سه شنبه 2 مهر1392

برتراند راسل - عشق

اگر همگی ما قدرت جادویی خواندن افکار یکدیگر را

داشتیم نخستین چیزی که در جهان از بین می رفت

عشق بود

 

برتراند راسل

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 

دوشنبه 1 مهر1392

Hans Hofmann - Painter

The ability to simplify means to eliminate the unnecessary so that the necessary may speak

نوشته شده توسط سید شهاب الدین ساداتی در |  لینک ثابت   • 
مطالب قدیمی‌تر